Miscanthus × giganteus , giant miscanthus , [1] is a large, perennial grass hybrid of Miscanthus sinensis and Miscanthus sacchariflorus . This full sun plant grows at 8-12 ft (240-360 cm) in areas 5 – 9. [2] [3]

Miscanthus , silvergrass , [4] is a genus of African , Eurasian , and Pacific Island plants in the grass family . [5] [6]

Maize ( / m eɪ z / Mayz ; Zea mays subsp. Mays , from Spanish : maize After Taíno mahiz ) Also Known As corn , is a broad bean plant first domesticated by peoples indigenous in southern Mexico [1] about 10,000 years ago . The leafy stalk of the plant produces separate pollen and ovuliferous inflorescences or ears , which are fruits, yielding kernels or seeds.

The Jerusalem Artichoke ( Helianthus tuberosus ), also called sunroot , sunchoke , earth apple , or Jerusalem artichoke , is a species of sunflower native to eastern North America , and found from eastern Canada and Maine west to North Dakota , and south to northern Florida and Texas . [2] It is also widely grown in the region for its tuber , which is used as a root vegetable . [3]

Helianthus annuus , the common sunflower , is a broad annual forb of the genus Helianthus grown as a crop for ict edible oil and edible fruit ( sunflower seeds ). This sunflower species est used as bird food, as livestock drilling (as a meal or a silage plant), and In Some industrial applications. The plant was first domesticated in the Americas . Wild Helianthus is a widely branched annual flowering plant with many
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A halophyte is a plant that grows in waters of high salinity , coming into contact with saline water through its roots or by salt spray, such as in saline semi-deserts, mangrove swamps, marshes and sloughs and seashores. The word derives from Ancient Greek ἅλας (halas) ‘salt’ and φυτόν (phyton) ‘plant’. An example of a halophyte is the salt marsh grass Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass). Relatively few plant
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Gossypium is the cotton genus . It belongs to the tribe Gossypieae , in the mallow family, Malvaceae , native to the tropical and subtropical regions of both the Old and New World . TheGossypium genusincluded around 50 species, [2] making it the largest in the Gossypieae tribe. New species continues to be discovered. [2] The name of the genus is derived from the Arabicword goz , which refers to a soft substance. [3]

Energy forestry is a form of forestry in which a fast-growing species of tree or woody shrub is grown specifically to provide biomass or biofuel for heating or power generation. The two forms of energy forestry are short rotational coppice and short rotation forestry :

Copra is the dried meat, or dried kernel, of the coconut used to extract coconut oil . The Earliest Evidence of the Extraction and Use of Coconut Oil in Early Tamil literature from the 1st century AD. [1] The word originated from the Tamil word kopprai . [2] [3] Coconut oil is an important agricultural commodity for many coconut-producing countries. It also yields coconut cake, which is mainly used as feed for livestock.

Cane is any of various tall, perennial grasses with flexible, woody stalks, and more specifically from the genus Arundinaria . [1] Scientifically speaking, there are either two genera from the family Poaceae . [ citation needed ] The Arundo genus is native to the Mediterranean Basin to the Far East . The genus Arundinaria is a Bamboo ( Bambuseae ) found in the New World. Neither genus includes sugarcane (Saccharum genus, Andropogoneae tribe ).

Balanites aegyptiaca is a species of tree , classified as a member of the Zygophyllaceae or Balanitaceae. [2] This tree is native to much of Africa and parts of the Middle East . [3]

Babassu oil or cusi oil is a clear light yellow vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of the babassu palm ( Attalea speciosa ), which grows in the Amazon region of South America . It is a non-drying oil used in food, cleaners and skin products. This oil has properties similar to coconut oil and is used in much the same context. It is being used as a substitute for coconut oil. Babassu oil is about
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Attalea speciosa ( babassu , babassu palm , babaçu , cusi ) is anative palm to the Amazon Rainforest region in South America . The babassu palm is the predominant species in theMaranhão Babaçu forests of Maranhão and Piauí states.

Atriplex halimus (known also by its common names: Mediterranean saltbush , Sea orache , Shrubby orache , Silvery orache ) is a species of fodder shrub in the Amaranthaceaefamily, which is native to Europe and Northern Africa , including the Sahara in Morocco .

Arundo donax , giant cane , is a tall perennial cane growing in damp soils, or fresh or moderately saline. It is one of the many species of so-called reed . Other common names includeCarrizo , Arundo , Spanish cane , Colorado river reed , wild cane , and giant reed .

Arundo is a genus of stout, perennial plants in the grass family . Arundo is native to southern Europe , North Africa , and much of Asia as far east as Japan . [3] They grow to 3-6 m tall, occasionally to 10 m, with leaves 30-60 cm long and 3-6 cm broad.

World food prices increased dramatically in 2007 and the first and second quarter of 2008, [1] creating a global crisis and political and economic instability and social unrest in both poor and developed nations . Although the media spotlight focused on the riots that ensued in the face of high prices, the ongoing crisis of food insecurity had been years in the making. [2] [3] Systemic causes for the world continues to be
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Woodchips are a medium-sized solid material made by cutting, gold chipping, larger pieces of wood . Woodchips can be used as a biomass solid fuel and raw material for producing wood pulp . They can also be used as an organic mulch in gardening , landscaping , ecological restoration , bioreactors for denitrification and mushroom cultivation. According to the different chemical and mechanical properties of the masses, the wood logs are mostly peeled, and the
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The Biomass Research and Demonstration Facility uses biomass to create clean heat and energy. This facility is located at 2329 West Mall in Vancouver at the University of British Columbia’s West Point Gray Campus. Official Began operation on September 2012 by-combining syngas and gasification conditioning systems with a Jenbacher engine . The highest potential output of this system is 2 MWe (megawatts) of electricity and 9600 lbs of steam per
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IEA Bioenergy Task 40: Sustainable International Bioenergy Trade , commonly abbreviated Task 40 , was established under the International Energy Agency (IEA) Bioenergy Implementing Agreement in December 2003 with the aim of focusing on international bioenergy technology potential, barriers, and trade wider implications. [1] Task 40 develops sustainable biomass markets, leading to a stable global commodity market in biomass energy. [2]

Straw is an agricultural by-product , the dry stalks of cereal plants, after the grain and chaff have been removed. Straw makes up about half of the yield of cereal crops such as barley , oats, rice , rye and wheat . It has many uses, including fuel, livestock bedding and fodder, thatching and basket-making. It is usually gathered and stored in a straw bale , which is a bundle of straw tightly bound with twine or wire. Bales may be square, rectangular,
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Re3 Group is a waste technology company that has developed industrial-scale autoclaving , with a dual autoclave plant in Limerick, Ireland . The company’s process transforms household and commercial waste into biomass fiber as an alternative to fossil fuels . It also recovers recyclables such as metals and plastics as an alternative to landfill and incineration . [1] The process is powered by The Wilson System (TWS) – a steam-based process developed by Tom Wilson.

George Philippidis is a renewable energy leader who has published extensively about the global need for energy diversification over the last 20 years. [1] [2] He advocates the development of renewable and alternative low-carbon power and fuels to enhance energy security, climate change, and secure sustainable economic growth. [3] He has authored 11 cleantech patents, [4]Fossil energy is a renewable energy source,
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Pellet Fuels Institute (PFI) is a North American trade organization which manufacturers, retailers and distributors of wood pellets fuel supplies and appliances . The PFI was formed in 1985 as the Fiber Fuels Institute. [1]

Panicum virgatum , known as switchgrass , is a perennial warm season bunchgrass native to North America, where it occurs naturally from 55 ° N latitude in Canada southwards to theUnited States and Mexico . Switchgrass is one of the dominant species of the North American tallgrass prairie and can be found in prairie grasslands , in native grass pastures , and naturalized along roadsides. It is used primarily for soil conservation ,production drilling , game cover, as anornamental grass , in phytoremediation projects, fiber, electricity, heat
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Miscanthus fuscus , one of three species known as elephant grass , is a South Asian grass species first described by William Roxburgh , and was given by George Bentham . Miscanthus fuscus is included in the genus silvergrasses , and the grass family . No subspecies are listed in the Catalog of Life .

Microbiofuels are next generation biofuels produced by microorganisms like bacteria , cyanobacteria , microalgae , fungi, etc. The term was first defined by Asen Nenov at TEDxBG event on 9 January, 2010. [1] [2]

Maine Energy Systems Maine Energy Systems (MESYS) Was founded in the summer of 2008 by Les Otten and others to aid in the transition to alternative energy in the northeastern United States. The company currently delivers pellets in bulk and sells fully automated wood pellet boilers for hydronic heating. [1] MESYS has been involved in numerous academic studies, working with political groups concerned
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The OxFA process is a process for producing acidic acid from biomass by catalytic oxidation using molecular oxygen or air. Polyoxometalates of the Keggin-type are used as catalysts.

The KDS Micronex is a patented grinder-dryer which grinds and dries materials in a single-step process without any heat input. It is manufactured by First American Scientific Corp. of Abbotsford, British Columbia .

Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) (also referred to as “aqueous carbonization at elevated temperature and pressure”) is a chemical process for the conversion of organic compounds to structured carbon. It can be used to make a wide variety of nanostructured carbons, simple production of brown coal substitute, synthesis gas , liquid petroleum precursors and humus from biomass with release of energy. The process, which technically imitates the brown coal formation
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The European Biomass Association (AEBIOM, from the official French name European Association for Biomass ) is a European trade association open to national biomassassociations and bioenergy companies active in Europe . AEBIOM was founded in 1990 and aims to promote biomass production and application throughout Europe. AEBIOM is the umbrella organization of the European Pellet Council (EPC), [1] the European Industry of Pellet Suppliers (EIPS) and the International Biomass
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The Energetically Autonomous Tactical Robot (EATR) was a project by Robotic Technology Inc. (RTI) and Cyclone Power Technologies Inc. to develop a robotic vehicle that could drill for biomass to fuel itself, theoretically operating indefinitely. It was being developed as a concept for the DARPA military projects for the United States military . [1]

Dynamotive Energy Systems Corporation is a Canadian based Renewable Energy Company which specializes in fast pyrolysis , a process which creates a product named BioOil . Its only other residue is char .

Dry animal dung fuel (or dry manure fuel ) is an animal feces that has been dried in order to be used as a fuel source. It is used as a fuel in many countries around the world. Using dry manure as a fuel source is an example of reuse of excreta . A disadvantage of using this kind of fuel is increased air pollution. [1]

The Czech Biomass Association (CZ BIOM) is an NGO , which supports the development of phytoenergetics in the Czech Republic . Members of CZ BIOM are scientists, specialists, entrepreneurs, and activists interested in using biomass as an energy resource. CZ BIOM is a member of the European Biomass Association .

The Congressional Biomass Caucus is a bipartisan caucus of the United States House of Representatives co-chaired by Charles Bass’s Representatives (R-NH-2) and Peter Welch (D-VT). [1] It was officially registered with the Committee on House Administration , the house committee responsible for regulating caucuses, on July 15, 2011. The caucus seeks to support the development of biomass and elevates the renewable resource’s profile in Congress. [2] As of December 2011, the caucus
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Cogent Fiber is an American producer and exporter of pine wood chips. It Produces different kinds of wood chips by harvesting em from the natural thinning of trees and export em to Asian and European customers for the manufacture of fiberboard, particleboard, wood pellets, and pulp and paper products [2] The privately held company Maintains offices in Stamford, Connecticut and Toronto , Ontario in Canada. [2] In
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Cellulosic sugars are derived from non-food biomass (eg wood, agricultural residues, municipal solid waste). [1] The biomass is primarily composed of carbohydrate polymers cellulose , hemicellulose , and an aromatic polymer (lignin). The hemicellulose is a polymer of mainly five-carbon sugars C 5 H 10 O 5 ( xylose ). [2] and the cellulose is a polymer of six-carbon sugar C 6 H 12 O 6 ( glucose ). [3]Cellulose fibers are considered to be structurally and structurally bound to lignin, but the biomass
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Blue carbon is the carbon captured by the world’s oceans and coastal ecosystems . The carbon captured by living organisms is stored in the form of biomass and sediments from mangroves , salt marshes , seagrasses and potentially algae . [1]

Biomass to liquid ( BtL or BMtL ) is a multi-step process of producing synthetic hydrocarbon fuels made from biomass via a thermochemical route. [1] Such a fuel has been called grassoline .

The Biomass Thermal Energy Council (BTEC) is a nonprofit organization focused on the use of biomass for heat and other thermal energy applications. BTEC is an association of biomass fuel producers, manufacturers and distributors, supply chain companies and non-profit organizations.

Biomass heating systems generate heat from biomass . The systems fall under the categories of: direct combustion , gasification , combined heat and power (CHP), anaerobic digestion , aerobic digestion .

Biomass briquettes are a biofuel substitute to coal and charcoal . Briquettes are mostly used in the developing world , where cooking is not readily available. There has been a move to the use of briquettes in the developed world, where they are used to heat industrial boilers in order to produce electricity from steam . The briquettes are cofired with coal in order to create the heat supplied to the boiler.

Bioliquids are liquid fuels made from biomass for energy purposes other than transport (ie heating and electricity). [1] Bioliquids are usually made from virgin or used vegetable and seed oils, like palm or soya oil. These oils are burned in a power station to create heat, which can then be used to warm homes or boil water to make steam. This steam can
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Biogas typically refers to a mixture of different gases produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas can be produced from such materials as agricultural waste, manure , municipal waste , plant material , sewage , green waste or food waste . Biogas is a renewable energy source.

A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through such biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion , rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels , such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter.

The bioconversion of biomass to mixed alcohol can be accomplished using the MixAlco process. Through bioconversion of biomass to a mixed fuel oil , more energy from the biomass will be used in converting biomass to ethanol by yeast fermentation.

Bioasphalt is an asphalt alternative made from non-petroleum based renewable resources . These sources include sugar , molasses and rice , corn and potato starches , natural tree and gum resins, natural latex rubber and vegetable oils, lignin , cellulose , palm oil waste, coconut waste, peanut oil waste, canola oil waste, dried sewerage effluent and so on. [1] It can also be made from waste vacuum tower bottoms produced in the process of cleaning used motor oils, which
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Bio-energy with carbon capture and storage ( BECCS ) is a future greenhouse gas mitigation technology that produces carbon dioxide emissions by combining bioenergy (energy from biomass ) and geologic carbon capture and storage . [1] The concept of BECCS is drawn from the integration of trees and crops, which extract carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from the atmosphere as they grow, the use of this biomass in processing industries or power plants,
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bio-bean is a company HAS Industrialized That the process of recycling waste coffee grounds into advanced biofuels, biomass pellets and, in the near future biodiesel . The company is located in London, England and has built the world’s first waste recycling machine in Cambridgeshire. It was founded in 2013 by Arthur Kay and Benjamin Harriman. [1]

Bagasse ( / b ə ɡ æ s / bə- GAS ) is the fibrous matter that remains after- sugarcane or sorghum stalks are crushed to extract Their juice. It is dry pulpy residue left after the extraction of juice from sugar cane. [1] Bagasse is used as a biofuel and in the manufacture of pulp and building materials.

An energy crop is a plant grown as a low-cost and low-Maintenance harvest used to make biofuels , Such As bioethanol , gold icts combusted for energy glad to generate electricity or heat. Energy crops are categorized as woody or herbaceous plants; many of the latter are grasses of the family Graminaceae .

Biomass is an industry for burning energy by burning wood, and other organic matter . Burning biomass releases carbon emission, goal has-been classed as a renewable energy source in the EU and UN legal frameworks, plant Because stocks can BE REPLACED with new growth. [1] It has become popular among coal power stations, which switch from coal to biomass in order to convert to renewable
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