National Institute for Agronomic Study of the Congo

The National Institute for Agronomic Study of the Belgian Congo (French: National Institute for Agronomic Study of the Belgian Congo ( INEAC ) Dutch : Nationaal Instituut voor de Landbouwkunde in Belgisch Congo ( Nilco )) Was a research facility Established in Yangambi in the Belgian Congo , operating from 1933 to 1962.

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Journal of Plantation Crops

The Journal of Plantation Crops is a triannual peer-reviewed scientific journal and is the official publication of the Indian Society for Planting Crops . The scope includes topics are planting Relating to cropping systems and crops like coconut , arecanut , oil palm , cashew , spices , cocoa , coffee , tea , and rubber . The Journal of Plantation Crops was established in 1973 and the editor-in-chief is V. Krishnakumar.

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Journal of Oil Palm Research

The Journal of Oil Palm Research (formerly known as Elaeis: The International Journal of Oil Palm Research and Development ) is a triannual peer-reviewed scientific paper covering research is palm oil fats, oils and oleo-chemistry. It is published by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board and the editor-in-chief is Mohd Tusirin HJ Mohd Nor ( National University of Malaysia ).

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National Institute for Agronomic Studies of the Belgian Congo

The National Institute for Agronomic Study of the Belgian Congo ( French : National Institute for Agronomic Study of the Belgian Congo , gold INEAC ) Was a research facility Established in Yangambi in the Belgian Congo , operating from the 1930s up to the country Gained independence in 1962 .

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Elaeis oleifera

Elaeis oleifera is a species of palm commonly called the American oil palm . It is native to South and Central America from Honduras to northern Brazil . [2] [3] [4] [5]

Unlike its relative Elaeis guineensis , the African oil palm, it is rarely planted commercially to produce palm oil , but hybrids between the two species are, [6] mainly in efforts to provide disease resistance and to increase the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids. oil. [7]

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Elaeis guineensis

Elaeis guineensis is a species of palm commonly called African oil palm or macaw fat . [2] It is the main source of palm oil . It is native to west and southwest Africa , specifically the area between Angola and the Gambia ; the species name guineensis Refers to the name for the area, Guinea , and not the modern country qui now bears That Name. The species is also now naturalized in Madagascar , Sri Lanka , Malaysia , Indonesia, Central America , the West Indies and several islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans . The étroitement related American oil palm Elaeis oleifera and has more distantly related palm, Attalea maripa , sont également used to Produce palm oil.

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Attalea maripa

Attalea maripa , commonly called maripa palm [3] is a palm native to tropical South America and Trinidad and Tobago . It grows up to 35 m (115 ft) tall and can-have leaves or fronds 10-12 m (33-39 ft) long. This plant has a yellow edible fruit which is oblong ovoid and cream . An edible oil can be extracted from the fruit of the kernel of the seed.

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Attalea (palm)

Attalea is a large genus of palms native to Mexico , the Caribbean , Central and South America . This pinnately leaved, non-spiny genus includes both small palms lacking an aboveground stem and large trees. The genus has a complicated taxonomic history, and has often been split into four or four generations. Since the genera can only be distinguished on the basis of their male flowers, the existence of intermediate flower types and the existence of hybrids between different generations has been used as an argument for keeping them all in the same genus. This has been supported by a recent molecular phylogeny.

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Elaeis

Elaeis (from Greek, meaning ‘oil’) is a genus of palms containing two species, called oil palms. They are used in commercial agriculture in the production of palm oil. The African oil palm Elaeis guineensis (the species name guineensis referring to its country of origin) is the principal source of palm oil. It is native to west and southwest Africa, occurring between Angola and Gambia. The American oil palm Elaeis oleifera (from Latin oleifer, meaning ‘oil-producing’)[2] is native to tropical Central and South America,[3] and is used locally for oil production.

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Cadang-Cadang

Cadang-cadang is a disease caused by Coconut cadang-cadang viroid (CCCVd), a lethal viroid of coconut ( Cocos nucifera ), anahaw ( Saribus rotundifolius ) buri ( Corypha utan ), and African oil palm ( Elaeis guineensis ). The name cadang-cadang comes from the word gadang-gadang that means dying in Bicol . [1] It was originally reported on San Miguel Island in the Philippines in 1927/1928. “By 1962, all but 100 of 250,000 palms on this island had died from the disease,” indicating an epidemic. [2]Every year one million coconut palms are killed by CCCVd and over 30 million coconut palms have been killed since Cadang-cadang has been discovered. CCCVd directly affects the production of copra , a raw material for coconut oil and animal feed. Total losses of about 30 million palms and annual yield losses of about 22,000 tons of copra have been attributed to Cadang-cadang disease in the Philippines. [3]

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National Cannabis Industry Association

The National Cannabis Industry Association ( NCIA ) is an American non-profit organization based in the District of Columbia, with an additional office in Denver, Colorado. NCIA is the largest cannabis trade association in the US and the only organization is state-sanctioned cannabis-related businesses at the federal level. Its mission is “to promote the growth of a responsible and legitimate cannabis industry and work for a favorable social, economic and legal environment for that industry in the United States.” [1] The organization was founded in late 2010 and has been described as the “first national trade group for the cannabis industry” in the United States. [2] [3] [4]

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Hemp Industries Association

The Hemp Industries Association ( HIA ) is a non-profit trade group Representing hemp companies, Researchers and supporters in the United States and Canada. The group petitions for fair and equal treatment of industrial hemp. Since 1992, the HIA has been dedicated to education, industry development, and the accelerated expansion of supply and demand .

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European Industrial Hemp Association

The European Industrial Hemp Association ( EIHA ) is a consortium of the hemp-processing industry. It represents the common interest of industrial hemp farmers and producers, both nationally and on a European level. EIHA is the only consortium in the industrial hemp sector. This sector includes, inter alia, the use of hemp fibers , shavings, seeds and cannabinoids . Founded as an association for the European industry, a quarter of the EIHA’s members are based in countries outside the EU . [1]

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The Hemp and Cannabis Foundation

The Hemp and Cannabis Foundation (THCF) was founded in 1999 [1] by Paul Stanford in Portland, Oregon . To date THCF has been helped over 250,000 patients to obtain medical advice in the field of medical marijuana where THCF has clinics. [2] THCF is the largest chain of medical marijuana clinics in the US with clinics operating in 12 states. [3]

History of THCF

THCF has produced over 800 episodes of live TV programs from the Cannabis Common Sense TV show . [4] THCF is also the main sponsor of Hempstalk in Portland, Oregon which is celebrating their 11th anniversary as a yearly dedicated festival to promoting hemp and cannabis.

In 1991, THCF began publishing an online newspaper called Hemp News, [5] which is the oldest online publication still published today. [6] Hemp News is also printed in Spanish. [7]

THCF, along with The Campaign for the Restoration and Regulation of Hemp (CHRC), Was Responsible for Placing Oregon’s Measure 80 to legalize hemp and marijuana on the ballot in 2012. Ballot Measure 80 received 47% of the Oregon vote [8] in November 2012.

In 2012, THCF helped Willie Nelson get his Oregon medical marijuana permit. THCF’s entourage provides their Oregon medical marijuana permits. [9] It was during this time that Nelson Stanford asked for the support of a proposed initiative to legalize marijuana in Oregon that was sponsored by THCF. Nelson appeared in a 30-second public service announcement in support of the Oregon Cannabis Tax Act ballot initiative. [9]

THCF’s Business

Since the year 1999, THCF has opened medical clinics in 12 states. [10] 250,000 patients have gone through medical marijuana. [11] THCF also has medical marijuana gardens in Oregon and Washington where marijuana production is legal, and the medicine from these gardens has won many awards at Cannabis Cup annual events. [1]

THCF’s Activism

On May 24, 2007 the DEA along with the Federal Government and federal prosecutor James Hagerty filed a subpoena for the medical records of 17 individuals, 14 of which were patients who had received medical marijuana permits from a THCF clinic. Eleven of the patients who were named in the subpoena were legally registered patients with the State of Oregon’s Department of Human Services medical marijuana program. The subpoena requested that the State of Oregon turn over the THCF patients’ private medical records to the government. [12] Eventually a federal judge sided with THCF and the State of Oregon and granted a motion to quash both subpoenas. “Absent a showing further Top of necessity and relevance, compliance with the subpoena Would significant impact State and medical privacyInterest and is unreasonable, “wrote Judge Robert H. Whaley of the US Eastern District Court of Washington. [12]

References

  1. ^ Jump up to:Dundas b , Zach (January 24, 2007). “Garden of Weedin ‘ ” . Willamette Week . Retrieved 21 September 2015 .
  2. Jump up^ Abney, Wes. “The Fighter” (September 2014). NW Leaf Magazine . Retrieved 27 September 2015 .
  3. Jump up^ KATU Communities Staff (September 19, 2012). “Salem to host cannabis tax act discussion on Sept. 28” . KATU.com . Retrieved 27 September 2015 .
  4. Jump up^ King, Bonnie (January 14, 2011). “Oregon Marijuana Activists Make OCTA 2012 Official” . Salem News . Retrieved 21 September 2015 .
  5. Jump up^ “The Hemp and Cannabis Foundation (THCF)” . Cannabis.info . Cannabis.info . Retrieved 21 September 2015 .
  6. Jump up^ “Cannabis Expo” . Cannabis Expo . Retrieved 21 September 2015 .
  7. Jump up^ News, Hemp. “Hemp News printed in Spanish” . crrh.org . Retrieved 24 January 2016 .
  8. Jump up^ Belville, Russ (October 29, 2013). “Oregon’s Inevitable Pot Legalization in 2014” . High Times . Retrieved 21 September 2015 .
  9. ^ Jump up to:b Crombie, Noelle (March 20, 2012). Willie Nelson throws his support behind proposed Oregon marijuana initiative . The Oregonian . Retrieved 21 September 2015 .
  10. Jump up^ Song, Anna (May 20, 2010). “How difficult is it to get a medical marijuana card?” . KATU News . Retrieved 21 September 2015 .
  11. Jump up^ Scott, Tristan (January 11, 2010). “Applying for relief: Missoula clinic helps patients fill out paperwork for medical marijuana” . Missoulian . Retrieved 21 September 2015 .
  12. ^ Jump up to:b Holden, Dominic (September 5, 2007). “US Court Rebukes DEA’s Attempt to Crack Medical Marijuana Records” . The Stranger . Retrieved 21 September 2015 .

Trichothecium roseum

Trichothecium roseum is a fungus in the Ascomycota firstdivisionreported in 1809. [1] It is characterized by its flat and granular colonies which are initially white and developed into light pink in color. [1] This fungus reproduces asexually through the formation of conidia with no known sexual state. [1] Trichothecium roseum is distinctive from other species of the genusTrichothecium in its characteristic zigzag patterned chained conidia. [2] It is found in various countries worldwide and can grow in a variety of habitats. [2] Trichothecium roseumA variety of secondary metabolites including mycotoxins, such as rosinotoxins and trichothecenes, which can be described as a variety of fruit crops. [1] It can be used as a pathogenic and opportunistic pathogen in the field of various diseases and their impact on the farming industry. [1] Secondary metabolites of T. roseum , specifically Trichothecinol A, are being investigated as potential anti-metastatic drugs. Several agents including harpin, silicon oxide, and sodium silicate are potential inhibitors of T. roseum growth on fruit crops. [3] [4] [5] Trichothecium roseumis a plant pathogen and has yet to show a significant impact on human health. [1]

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Septoria cannabis

Septoria cannabis is a species of plant pathogen from the Septoria genus that causes Septoria leaf spot. Early symptoms of infection are concentrated on the vegetative leaves of cannabis plants, followed by chlorosis and necrosis of the leaf. Septoria , which is an ascomycete and pycnidia producing fungus, has been known to attack Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae species as well as many species species. This genus is known to encompass over one thousand species of pathogens, each infecting a specific and unique host.

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Arabis mosaic virus

Arabis mosaic virus is a viral plant pathogen that is known to infect multiple hosts. The pathogen, commonly referred to as Armv, is from the Secoviridae family, and causes Raspberry yellow dwarf virus and Rhubarb mosaic virus. [1] The Arabis Mosaic virus infects multiple hosts, including strawberries, hop, hemp, grape and geraniums, raspberries, sugarbeets, celery, horseradish, lilac, peach and lettuces. [1] [2]

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Industrial Hemp Farming Act of 2009

The Industrial Hemp Farming Act of 2009 is a bill that was introduced in the United States House of Representatives by Ron Paul ( R – Texas ) and Barney Frank ( D – Massachusetts ) on April 2, 2009. [1] Also known as HR1866, the bill clarifies the differences between marijuana and industrial hemp as well as repeals federal laws that prohibit American farmers from cultivating industrial hemp. Industrial hemp is the non- psychoactive , low- THC , oilseed and fiber varieties of thecannabis sativa plant. [2] Hemp is a sustainable resource that has been used for fuel, fabrics, paper, household products, and has been used for centuries of civilization around the world. If HR1866 passes American farmers will be allowed to compete in global hemp markets. On March 10, 2009, both Paul and Frank wrote a letter to their Congressional colleagues urging them to support the legislation. [3] [4] This bill was previously introduced in 2005 under the title of Industrial Hemp Farming Act of 2005 .

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Industrial Hemp Farming Act of 2005

The Industrial Hemp Farming Act of 2005 was billed as HR 3037 in the United States House of Representatives on June 22, 2005. The bill proposes “to amend the Controlled Substances Act to exclude industrial hemp from the definition of marihuana, and for other purposes “. Submitted by Ron Paul , Pete Stark , Jim McDermott and Raul Grijalva , The Committee on Energy and Commerce and the United States House Committee on the Judiciary . On July 1, 2005, Energy and Commerce referred the bill to the Subcommittee on Health. [1]

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Hemp juice

Hemp juice made from industrial hemp is a drug-free, non-psychoactive juice pressed from the Cannabis sativa plant. The juice is obtained through a large-scale industrial cold-pressing procedure using the upper parts of the plant as well as the leaves. This procedure clearly distinguishes hemp oil from other hemp products such as oil hemp , hemp sprouts or hemp milk, which are obtained from the seeds of green tea leaves used for the juice. The hemp juice production makes use of a valuable part of the production process. In particular, in the areas of nutrition, medicine, cosmetics, and relaxing beverages. Moreover, its full-bodied umami flavor offers the ability to enhance its specific flavor, especially sweet or savory and harmonizes tastes overall.

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Soybean because

The soybean as , more recently Referred to as the hemp body because , Was a prototype car built with agricultural plastic. Although the formula has been used, it has been suggested that the first iteration of the body is made partially from soybeans and hemp . [2] [A] [4] The body was lighter and therefore more fuel efficient than a normal metal body. [5] It was made in Dearborn, Michigan , through the work of scientist / botanist George Washington Carver and was introduced to public view on August 13, 1941. [2]It was made, in part, as a hedge against the rationing of steel during World War II . [6] [7] It was designed to run on hemp fuel . [8]

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Hemp oil

Hemp oil or hempseed oil is obtained by pressing hemp seeds. Cold pressed, unheated oil with a nutty flavor. The darker the color, the grassier the flavor. It should not be confused with hash oil , a tetrahydrocannabinol-containing oil made from the Cannabis flower, hailed by some [1] for its medicinal qualities. [2]

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Oakum

Oakum is a preparation of tarred fiber used to seal gaps. Its main traditional applications were in shipbuilding, for caulking or packing the joints of timbers in wooden vessels and the deckplanking of iron and steel ships; in plumbing, for sealing joints in cast iron pipe ; and in log cabins for chinking . In ship caulking, it was forced between the seams using a hammer and a caulking iron, then sealed into place with hot pitch. [1]

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Maltos-Cannabis

Maltos-Cannabis was a Swedish hemp seed- based malt beverage “food remedy” with sedative qualities being produced around the late 19th century into the early 20th century. [1] [2] The product was widely available in Sweden, Denmark, and Norway, [3] and was advertised and reviewed in American publications. An 1899 pharmaceutical reference book printed in Philadelphia defined the product: “A Swedish nutrient in form of a yellowish-white powder, possessing a taste at first salt, later sweetish, and then acrid and bitter.” [4]

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Hemp jewelry

Hemp jewelry uses hemp twine material which is made from the Cannabis sativa plant, which is known as “Common Hemp”, which is used to produce such food, fuel, clothing and textiles, cosmetics, paints, paper, building materials, and plastics. , among others. Some types of jewelry include bracelets, necklaces, anklets, rings, watches, masks, purses, and other adornments. The jewelry can also make use of other materials, such as glass, wood, bones, rocks, or gems.

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Hempcrete

Hempcrete or Hemplime is a bio-composite material, a mixture of hemp hurdles (shives) and lime (possibly including natural hydraulic lime , [1] sand , pozzolans ) used as a material for construction and insulation . [2] It is marketed under names like Hempcrete, Canobiota, Canosmose, and Isochanvre. [3] Hempcrete is easier to work with than traditional lime mixes and acts as an insulator and moisture regulator. It lacks the brittleness of concrete and does not need expansion joints . [3] The result is a lightweight insulating material.

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Hemp protein

Hemp protein is the protein content of hemp seeds. The protein in hemp seeds is made up of two globulin types of proteins, edestin (60-80%) and albumin , [1] with essential amino acids. [2] [3] Hemp protein has a PDCAAS score of 0.61 (a limiting amino acid being lysine , with a digestibility of 94.9%) [4] and a biological value of 87. citation needed ] The total proportion of essential amino acidsin hemp protein isolate, is also significantly higher than that of soy protein isolate. [5]

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Hemp hurds

Hemp hurds , also known as shives or hemp wood, are an agricultural product made from hemp . Hurds consist of “the woody inner portion of the hemp stalk, broken into pieces and separated from the fiber in the processes of breaking and scutching ” and “correspond to the shifted in flax, but are coarser and usually softer in texture”. [1]

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Seattle Hempfest

Seattle Hempfest is an annual event in Seattle , Washington , the World’s Largest [1] annual gathering Advocating decriminalization of marijuana . [2] Vivian McPeak serves as the organization’s executive director. Founded in 1991 as the Washington Hemp Expo , [3] [4] self-described “humble gathering of stoners ” attended by only 500 people, [4] and renamed the following year as Hempfest, [3] it has grown into a three-day annual political rally, concert, and arts and crafts fair [5]with typically over 100,000. Speakers-have included Seattle city council member Nick Licata , [4] actor / activist Woody Harrelson (2004), [4] travel writer and TV host Rick Steves (2007), (2010), [4] [6] 2012 Green Party speaker Jill Stein, Dallas Cowboys center Mark Stepnoski (2003), [4] [7] and former chief of the Norm Stamper Seattle Police Department (2006). [3] Hempfest has also been successful in recent years as Fishbone (2002), [8] TheKottonmouth Kings (2004), [9] Rehab (2006), [10] and Pato Banton (2007) [11] to its five stages [12] spread throughout Myrtle Edwards Park and Elliott Bay Park , on Seattle’s waterfront. [12] [13]

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Portland Hempstalk Festival

Portland’s Hempstalk Festival is an annual event in Portland , Oregon advocating the decriminalization of marijuana for medicinal , industrial , and recreational use. Founded in 2005, the festival takes up Often the weekend after- Labor Day and features food vendors, live music, and information booths. The event has been waiting for you.

According to Paul Stanford, founder and director of the event:

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Kyoto Hemp Forum

Kyoto Hemp Forum (also known as the Kyoto International Hemp Environmental Forum) is a hemp industry event held in Kyoto. The first event was held in July 2016. [1] Featured speakers included Japanese politicians first lady Akie Abe and the Mayor of Kyoto, Daisaku Kadokawa , US activist Chris Conrad and Dutch seed entrepreneur Ben Dronkers . [2] [3] The title of Conrad’s book Hemp: Lifeline to the Future was also the official theme of the event. [4]Exhibitors at the forum include an Australian hemp seed company whose biggest market is Japan. [5]

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Charlotte’s web (cannabis)

Charlotte’s Web is a high- cannabidiol (CBD), low- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) Cannabis extract marketed as a dietary supplement under federal law of the United States. [1] [2] [3] It is produced by the Stanley brothers in Colorado. It does not induce the psychoactive ” high ” typically associated with recreational marijuana strains that are high in THC. [4] In September 2014, the Stanleys announced that they would ensure that the product is less than 0.3% THC. [5]

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Hanfparade

The Hanfparade (English: Hemp Parade ) is a hemp legalization demonstration in Berlin . It has taken place every year in August since 1997.

The traditional course of the parade floats make a prelude through the German capital. In a demonstration, give Thousands hemp and cannabis Their attention. At the end of the demonstration at closing speech takes place.

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Xuan paper

Xuan paper ( Xuanzhi simplified Chinese : 宣纸 ; traditional Chinese : 宣紙 ; pinyin : xuānzhǐ ) gold Shuen paper or rice paper , is a kind of paper Originating in ancient China used for writing and painting. Xuan paper is renowned for being soft and fine textured, suitable for conveying the artistic expression of both Chinese calligraphy and painting.

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Weed World Candies

Weed World Candies sells lollipops . The lollipops are marketed and sold in the United States. With cannabis on the vines depicting cannabis plants next to lollipops, strong euphemism suggests a cannabis flavor or the possibility of intoxication after eating the lollipops. The candy sold by the vans contains no THC , however. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]

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University of Manitoba Hemp Awareness Committee

The University of Manitoba Hemp Awareness Committee (UMHAC) was founded when? ] By Martin Moravcik, Meera Sarin, Wayne and Gil Potoroka Maguet. [1] Manitoba Hemp Alliance (MHA) lobbied government officials and organized support for hemp . The MHA also convinced the Manitoba government to allow the first scientific research in Manitoba after its 50-year ban. [2] [3]

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Standing Silent Nation

Standing Silent Nation is a 2006 documentary film about Alex White Plume, a resident of South Dakota’s Pine Ridge Reservation. After a great deal of research, Alex and his family planted industrial hemp, under the incorrect assumption that tribal sovereignty laws would allow the production of this non-psychoactive relative of marijuana, and the film details the consequences of his actions. [1]

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scutching

Scutching is a step in the processing of cotton or the dressing of flax or hemp in preparation for spinning . The scutching process separates the impurities from the raw material, such as the seeds from raw cotton or the straw and woody stem from flax fibers. [1] [2] scutching can be done by hand or by machines is Known As has scutcher. Hand scutching of flax with a wooden scutching knife and a small iron scraper. The end products of flax scissors are the long flax fibers, shorts coarser fibers called tow and woody waste matter called shive. [3]

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Sambe

Sambe ( Korean : 삼베 ), or hemp fiber , is a traditional fiber for Korean clothing. The knowledge of weaving is skillfully understood, and has been deemed to be a national treasure, and has been designated as an intangible cultural asset . [1] Sambe was the primary textile fiber used in clothing for commoners prior to the introduction of cotton to Korea in the late 15th century. [2] A particularly fine variety is andongpo from Andong , North Gyeongsang Province . [2] [3] [4]

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retting

Rettig is a Process Employing the share of micro-organisms and plants is moisture to dissolve or rot away much of the cellular tissues and pectins surrounding bast-fiber bundles, and so Facilitating separation of the fiber from the stem. [1] It is used in the production of fiber from plants such as flax and hemp stalks and coir from coconut husks. [2] See also Jute .

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International Hemp Building Association

The International Hemp Building Association ( IHBA ) [1] is the largest association in this sector. Members and partners of the association include architects , builders , consultants, designers , the European Industrial Hemp Association (EIHA), the Hemp Industries Association and manufacturers . A non-profit association founded in 2009 by director Steve Allin author and hemp building consultant, [2] [3] the association globally promotes and supports the production of all hempand their by-products in a sustainable and bio-regional manner. [4]

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Hash, Marihuana & Hemp Museum

The Hash, Marihuana & Hemp Museum is a museum located in De Wallen , Amsterdam , Netherlands . According to the museum, more than two million visitors have visited the exhibition since it opened in 1985. [1] Dedicated to cannabis and its many uses, the museum offers information about the historical and modern uses of cannabis for medicinal , spiritualand cultural practical purposes. The museum also focuses on how hempcan be used for agricultural and industrial purposes, and in the gift shop. In 2012 the museum opened in Barcelona , the Hash Marihuana Cáñamo & Hemp Museum .

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Cannabis sativa

Cannabis sativa is an annual herbaceous flowering plant indigenous to eastern Asia. [1] It is placed in the Cannabis genus which belongs to a small but diverse family Cannabaceae . It has been cultivated throughout recorded history , used as a source of industrial fiber , seed oil , food , recreation , religious and spiritual moods and medicine . Each part of the plant is harvested differently, depending on the purpose of its use. The species was first classified byCarl Linnaeus in 1753. [2]

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Steve Allin

Steve Allin (born 1955) is an author, teacher and pioneer in the use of hemp in building and director of the International Hemp Building Association . [1]

Allin started using hemp and lime in a natural construction material in 1997 which was published in 2005, [2] The first published book on hemp as a building system. He has contributed to the Green Building Bible and Local Sustainable Homes and has written articles for self-build magazines, [3] Cannabis Culture , [4] Construct Ireland, Energy Blitz, [5] Hanf and New Observations Magazine. He founded the International Hemp Building Association in 2009, after hosting a symposium on the subject in Kenmare , Ireland.

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Hemp

Hemp , or industrial hemp (from Old English hænep ), [1] typically found in the northern hemisphere , is a variety of Cannabis sativa plant species that is grown specifically for the industrial uses of its derived products. [2] It is one of the fastest growing seedlings [3] and was one of the first plants to be spun into usable fiber 10,000 years ago. [4] It can be refined into a variety of commercial items including paper, textiles , clothing, biodegradable plastics, paint, insulation, biofuel, food, and animal feed. [5]

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Tetraselmis suecica

Tetraselmis suecica is a marine green alga . It grows as single, motile cells visible under light microscope up to concentrations over one million cells per milliliter. It can be grown as a foodstock in aquaculture, being able to species such as rotifers of the genus Brachionus . It is a motile chlorophyte and contains a high lipid content.

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SERI microalgae culture collection

The SERI microalgae culture collection was a collection from the Department of Energy’s Aquatic Species Program Cataloged at the Solar Energy Research Institute located in Golden, Colorado . The Aquatic Species Program ended in 1996 after its funding was cut, to which point its microalgae collection was moved to the University of Hawaii. In 1998 the University of Hawaii, partnered with the University of California at Berkeley, received a grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF), for their proposal to develop commercial, medical, and industrial uses of microalgae, as well as more efficient techniques for cultivation. This grant was used to form Marine Bioproduct Engineering Center (MarBEC), a facility operating within the University of Hawaii at Manoa, but connected to corporate interests.

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Prymnesium parvum

Prymnesium parvum is a species of haptophytes (= Prymnesiophyta). The species is of concern because of its ability to produce a toxin, prymnesin . It is a flagellated algae that is normally found suspended in the water column. It was first identified in North America in 1985 and was artificially (eg, invasive species or missed in previous surveys). Toxin production mainly kills fish and appears to have little effect on cattle or humans. This distinguishes it from red tide , which are algal bloom whose toxins lead to harmful effects in people. Although no harmful effects are known, it is recommended to consume dead or dying fish exposed to a P. parvumbloom. Prymnesium parvum of Haptophyta is sometimes termed a golden algae or a golden brown algae. Chrysophyceae of Heterokontophyta but the taxonomy of algae is under complex revision leading to contradictions in terms of non-scholarly texts such as those of state wildlife departments.

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Pleurochrysis carterae

Pleurochrysis carterae is a marine species of unicellular coccolithophorid algae that has the ability to calcify subcellularly. They produce calcified scales, known as coccoliths, which are deposited on the surface of the cell resulting in the formation of a coccosphere. Pleurochrysis carterae produce heterococcoliths which are composed of crystal units of variable shapes and sizes.

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Phaeodactylum tricornutum

Phaeodactylum tricornutum is a diatom . It is the only species in the genus Phaeodactylum . Unlike other diatoms P. tricornutum can exist in different morphotypes ( fusiform , triradiate, and oval), and exchange in cell shape can be stimulated by environmental conditions. [1] This feature can be used to explore the molecular basis of cell shape control and morphogenesis. Unlike most diatoms P. tricornutum can grow in the absence of silicon, and it can survive without making silicified frustules. This provides opportunities for experimental exploration of silicon-based nanofabrication in diatoms.

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Neochloris oleoabundans

Neochloris oleoabundans is a microalga belonging to the class Chlorophyceae . Due to its high lipid content, it has been considered as a candidate organism for cosmetics [1] and biofuelproduction, [2] as well as feedstock for freshwater mussels . [3]

Neochloris was first isolated from a sand dune in Saudi Arabia by S. Chantanachat sometime between 1958-1962. [4]

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Isochrysis galbana

Isochrysis galbana is a species of haptophytes. It is the species species of the genus Isochrysis . It is an outstanding food for various bivalve larvae. and is now widely cultured for use in the bivalve aquaculture industry. [1] This unicellular is investigated for its high amount of Fucoxanthin (18.23 mg / g dried sample). [2] The Isochrysis galbana extract is said to have some cosmetic and hair-growth properties when using hexane , ethyl acetate , ethanol , water , methanol , goldisopropanol as extractants . [3]

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Expeller pressing

Expeller pressing (also called Expired oil pressing ) is a mechanical method for extracting oil from raw materials trademarked by Anderson International Corp. Mr. Valerius D. Anderson founded the Anderson VD Company in Cleveland, Ohio in 1888. In 1900, Mr. VD Anderson created the first successful ever-operated Expeller press. [1] The raw materials are squeezed under high pressure in a single step. When used for the extraction of food oils, nuts , seeds and algae, which are supplied to the press in a continuous feed. As the raw material is pressed, friction causes it to heat up; in the case of harder nuts, which can be found at 120 ° F (49 ° C).

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Botryococcus braunii

Botryococcus braunii (Bb) is a green, pyramid-shaped planktonic microalga that is of potential importance in the field of biotechnology . Colonies held together by a lipid biofilm matrix can be found in tropical gold or oligotrophic lakes and estuaries, and will bloom when in the presence of elevated levels of inorganic dissolved phosphorus. The species is notable for its ability to produce high amounts of hydrocarbons , especially in the form of triterpenes , which are typically around 30-40% of their dry weight. [1]Compared to other green algae species it has a relatively thick cell wall that is accumulated from previous cellular divisions; making of cytoplasmic components rather difficult. Fortunately, much of the useful hydrocarbon oil is outside of the cell. [2]

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Algal nutrient solution

Algal nutrient solutions are made of a mixture of chemical salts and water. Nutritional solutions, along with carbon dioxide and light, provide the materials needed for growing to. Nutrient solutions, as opposed to fertilizers, are designed specifically for use in aquatic environments and their composition is much more accurate.

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Algae fuel

Algae fuel , algal biofuel , or algal oil is an alternative to liquid fossil fuels that uses algae as its source of energy-rich oils. Also, algae fuels are an alternative to commonly known biofuel sources, such as corn and sugarcane. [1] [2] Several companies and government agencies are funding efforts to reduce capital and operating costs and make algae fuel production commercially viable. [3] Like fossil fuel, algae fuel releases CO 2 when burnt, but unlike fossil fuel, algae fuel and other biofuels only release CO 2recently removed from the atmosphere via photosynthesis as the algae or plant grew. The energy crisis and the world food crisis -have ignited interest in algaculture (farming algae) for making biodiesel and other biofuels using Unsuitable land for agriculture. Among algal fuels’ attractive characteristics are That They Can be grown with minimal impact is fresh water resources, [4] [5] Can Be Produced using saline and wastewater ,-have a high flash points , [6] and are biodegradable and Relatively harmless to the environment if spilled. [7] [8]Algae cost more per unit mass than other second-generation biofuel crops due to high capital and operating costs, [9] but is claimed to yield between 10 and 100 times more fuel per unit area. [10] The United States Department of Energy estimates that if it were algae fueled in the United States, it would require 15,000 square miles (39,000 km 2 ), which is only 0.42% of the US map, [11] or about half of the land area of Maine . This is less than 1 / 7 the area of corn harvested in the United States in 2000. [12]

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Table of biofuel crop yields

The following table shows the vegetable yields of common energy crops associated with biodiesel production. This is unrelated to ethanol production , which is related to starch , sugar and cellulose content instead of oil yields.

Crop kg oil / ha / yr liters oil / ha lbs oil / acre US gal / acre
maize (corn) 147 172 129 18
cashew nut 148 176 132 19
oats 183 217 163 23
lupine (lupine) 195 232 175 25
kenaf 230 273 205 29
calendula 256 305 229 33
cotton 273 325 244 35
hemp 305 363 272 39
soybean 375 446 335 48
coffee 386 459 345 49
flax (linseed) 402 478 359 51
hazelnuts 405 482 362 51
euphorbia 440 524 393 56
pumpkin seed 449 534 401 57
coriander 450 536 402 57
mustard seed 481 572 430 61
camelina 490 583 438 62
sesame 585 696 522 74
safflower 655 779 585 83
Salesman 696 828 622 88
tung tree 790 940 705 100
sunflowers 800 952 714 102
cocoa ( cocoa ) 863 1026 771 110
peanut 890 1059 795 113
opium poppy 978 1163 873 124
rapeseed 1000 1190 893 127
olives 1019 1212 910 129
beaver beans 1188 1413 1061 151
pecan nuts 1505 1791 1344 191
jojoba 1528 1818 1365 194
jatropha 1590 1892 1420 202
macadamia nuts 1887 2246 1685 240
brazil nuts 2010 2392 1795 255
avocado 2217 2638 1980 282
coconut 2260 2689 2018 287
chinese tallow 3950 4700 3500 500
oil palm 5000 5950 4465 635
Copaifera langsdorffii [1] 12000 1283
Millettia pinnata [2] 9000
algae (open pond) [3] 80000 95000 70000 10000

– Note: Chinese Tallow ( Sapium sebiferum , or Triadica sebifera ) is also known as the “Popcorn Tree”.

Sources

  • Used with permission from the Global Petroleum Club

Sourced here [4] , published in Hill, Amanda, Al Kurki, and Mike Morris. 2006. “Biodiesel: The Sustainability Dimensions.” ATTRA Publication. Butte, MT: National Center for Appropriate Technology. Pages 4-5.

Sustainable Oils

Sustainable Oils is a Seattle-based renewable fuels company specializing in the research and production of Camelina , the only advanced biofuels feedstock with the United States Department of Agriculture , Environmental Protection Agency , and the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) regulatory approvals
[1] Oil extracted from Camelina seeds can be processed into a renewable energy jet , green diesel , biodiesel , green plastics and renewable oleochemicals . [2] The biomassthat can be used as a nutrient-rich animal feed. Camelina offers several advantages over traditional biofuel feedstocks like soy and corn , such as competitive oil yields and shorter growing seasons. [3] Sustainable Oils has its primary operations in the state of Montana..

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Pongamia oil

Pongamia oil is derived from the seeds of the Millettia pinnata tree, which is native to tropical and temperate Asia . Milletia pinnata , also known as Pongamia pinnata or Pongamia glabra , is common throughout Asia, and many of them have been described in English to describe the seed oil derived from M. pinnata ; Pongamia is often used as a generic name for the tree and is derived from the genus tree. [1]

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Millettia pinnata

Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre [2] is a species of tree in the pea family, Fabaceae , native in tropical and temperate Asia Including parts of Indian subcontinent , China , Japan , Malesia ,Australia and Pacific islands . [1] [3] [4] It is Often Known by the synonym Pongamia pinnata As It Was Moved to the genus Millettia only recently. Common names include Indian beech ,Magul karanda (මැගුල් කරන්ද in Sinhala) Pongam oiltree , karanj ( Hindi ), honge / karajata (ಹೊಂಗೆ / ಕರಜಾತ in Kannada ), pungai (புங்கை in Tamil ), kānuga (కానుగ in Telugu ), karach (করচ গাছ in Bengali ), naktamāla (नक्तमाल in Sanskrit ), Sukh Chain (سکھ چین in Urdu ).

Description

Pongamia pinnata (L.) Stone is a vegetable tree that grows to about 15-25 meters (50-80 ft) in height with a wide canopy which spreads equally wide. It can be deciduous for short periods. It has a straight gold crooked trunk, 50-80 centimeters (20-30 in) in diameter, with gray-brown bark which is smooth or vertically fissured. Branches are glabrous with pale stipulate scars. The imparipinnate leaves of the tree alternate and are short-stalked, rounded or cuneateat the base, ovate or oblong along the length, obtuse-acuminate at the apex, and not toothed on the edges. They are a soft, shiny burgundy when young and mature to a glossy, deep green as the season progresses with prominent veins underneath. [5]

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Jatropha curcas

Jatropha curcas is a species of flowering plant in thefamily spurge , Euphorbiaceae , which is native to the American tropics , most likely Mexico and Central America . [2] It is originally native to the tropical areas of the Americas from Mexico to Argentina, and has been spread throughout the world in tropical and subtropical regions around the world , becoming naturalized or invasive in many areas. 

[3] The specific epithet , “curcas” , was first used by Portuguesedoctor Garcia de Orta more than 400 years ago. [4] Common names in English include physic nut , Barbados nut , poison nut , bubble bush or purging nut . [3] In parts of Africa and areas in Asia such as India it is also known as oil or hedge oil plant . [3]

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Copaifera langsdorffii

Copaifera langsdorffii , also known as the diesel tree , is a tropical rainforest tree. It has many names in local languages, including kupa’y , cabismo , and copaúva . [1] : 5

Biological description

C. langsdorffii is a medium-sized to large tree usually reaching 12 m (39 ft) in height, with white flowers and small, oily fruits. The wood is light due to its porosity , and it is honeycombed with capillaries filled with oil. Tapping the tree Involves cutting a qui well into the oil seeps and Where It Can Be Easily file Managed. The tree does not grow well outside the tropics . [1] : 8

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Copaiba

Copaiba is a stimulating oleoresin obtained from the trunk of several pinnate-leaved South American leguminous trees ( Genus Copaifera ). The thick, transparent exudate varies in color from light to dark brown, depending on the ratio of resin to essential oil . Copaiba is used in making varnishes and lacquers .
The balsam May be steam distilled to give copaiba oil , a colorless to light yellow liquid with the characteristic odor of the balsam and an aromatic, Slightly bitter, pungent taste. The oil Primarily Consists of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons; its main component is caryophyllene . [1]

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cardoon

The cardoon ( Cynara cardunculus ), also called the artichoke thistle is, like artichoke, a thistle in the sunflower family . It is a naturally occurring species that includes the artichoke globe, and has many cultivated forms . It is native to the western and central Mediterranean region, where it was domesticated in ancient times.

Description

The wild cardoon is a stout herbaceous perennial plant growing 0.8 to 1.5 m (31 to 59 in) tall, with deeply lobed and heavily spined green to green-gray tomentose (hairy or downy) leaves up to 50 cm (20 in) long, with yellow spines up to 3.5 cm long The flowers are purple-purple, produced in a large, globose , massively spined capitulum up to 6 cm (2 in) in diameter. [2] [3] [4] [5]

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Camelina sativa

Camelina sativa is a flowering plant in the family Brassicaceae and is usually Known in English as camelina , gold-of-pleasure , or false flax , wild flax aussi occasionally, linseed dodder, German sesame, and Siberian oilseed. It is native to Central Asian areas. This plant is cultivated as oilseed crop Mainly in Europe and in North America.

Description

As a summer or winter annual plant , camelina grows to heights of 30-120 cm (12-47 in), with branching stems which become woody at maturity. The leaves are alternate on the stem, lanceolate with a length of 2-8 cm (0.79-3.15 in) and a width of 2-10 mm (0.079-0.394 in). Leaves and stems may be partially hairy. It blooms in the UK, between June and July. [1] Its abundant, four-petaled flowers are pale yellow in color, and cross-shaped. [1] Later, it produces a fruit which is pear shaped with a short beak. [1] The seeds are brown, [1] or orange in color and a length of 2-3 mm (0.079-0.118 in). [2]The 1,000-seed weight ranges from 0.8-2.0 g (0.028-0.071 oz). [3]

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Camelina

Camelina is a genus within the flowering plant family Brassicaceae . The Camelina species, commonly known as false flax, are native to Mediterranean regions of Europe and Asia . Most species of this genus have been studied with the exception of Camelina sativa , historically cultivated as oil plant . Heinrich Johann Nepomuk von Crantz was the first botanist to use the genus CamelinaIn a classification published in December 2016 , the US Navy tested a 50-50 mix of jet fuel and fuel derived from camelina seeds in 2010. [1] kerosene-based jet fuel makes it cost-prohibitive for commercial airlines to use camelina-based jet fuel. The study said that it would be necessary to have a market share of 9 percent government subsidy on camelina crop production, with 9 percent tax on the fuel oil. [2]

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Thunder Bay Generating Station

The Thunder Bay Generating Station (“Thunder Bay GS”) is a biomass- powered power station owned by Ontario Power Generation (“OPG”). It is located on Mission Island in Thunder Bay , on the shore of Lake Superior . [1]

Operating since 1963, Thunder Bay GS was the last coal fired station in Ontario. The plant was shut down in April 2014 as part of Ontario’s phase out of coal-fired electricity generation. [2] [3] It was converted to run on advanced biomass (wood pellets) and recommissioned on February 9, 2015. [4]

Atikokan Generating Station

Atikokan Generating Station is a biomass power plant owned by OPG (OPG) Located 8 km (5 mi) north of Atikokan , Ontario (190 km (118 mi) west of Thunder Bay ). The plant employs 90 people. The Atikokan Generating Station Began operation as a coal-fired station in 1985 and underwent an overhaul in the autumn of 2003.

Until 2012, it had one coal fueled generation unit with low sulfur oxide (NOx) burners, providing a peak output of 230 MW fired by low sulfur lignite coal from Western Canada . In late 2012, the facility is powered down and underwent renovations, by the Ontario government’s initiative to eliminate all coal-fired electricity generation. [1] It is the first generating station to be converted by OPG to be fueled by biomass, [2] and is North America’s largest purely biomass-fueled power plant. [3] The conversion came at a cost of C $ 200 million, and the plant was re-opened on September 10, 2014. [3][4] [5]

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Splitting maul

splitting maul also known as a block buster , block splitter , sledge axis , go-devil or hamax is a heavy, long-handled axis used for splitting a piece of wood along its grain. One side of its head is like a sledgehammer , and the other side is like an axis.

Tools

Wedged mauls
A typical wood splitting has a weight of 6 to 8 lb or approximately 2.7 to 3.6 kg, respectively. Traditionally, they have a wedge -shaped head, but some modern versions have conicalheads or swiveling sub-wedges. The original maul resembles an axis but with a broader head. For splitting wood, this tool is much better than a typical axis. The weight of it is more important and less expensive, it is less likely to become stuck in the wood. The wedge section of the head must be slightly concave-section that can be concave-sectioned. Unlike an axis, maul handles are normally straight and closer to the elongated oval axis handles tend to be. A maul’s handle, unlike an axis, is intentionally used for levering and swinging. The handles are typically made from hickory, though synthetic fiberglass handles have become common. Plastic handles are more difficult to break and their factory-attached heads are less likely to work with the lifting action of a maul. In the early 1970s a triangular head design with an unbreakable metal handle was introduced called “Monster Maul.”
Separate wedges
Splitting can also be done with a separate wedge and a large hammer. As this allows several wedges to be used together, To avoid mushrooming the head of the wedge, they are driven to a heavy wooden mallet rather than an iron hammer. In parts of England the word “maul” denotes this tool with a very heavy wooden head. It is also known as a beetle; There is a River Thames at Moulsford called the Beetle and Wedge .
Powered log splitters
Hydraulic log splitters are commonly used today. They can be horizontal or vertical.

Techniques

The maul is most commonly struck to a flush-cut section of log, usually standing on end at a splitting stump or other suitable basis. Most cut sections can be split into a single downward chop of the maul, splitting the wood apart along its grain. Mauls regularly becomes stuck in the log for one of several reasons, such as the wood not being struck with adequate force, the wood containing hidden knots, or the length of wood being too long. Unlike an axis mauls are effective after-along the edge dulls, as the primary mechanism Is That of a wedge through Pushed along the wood grain, and not a cross-grain chop of an axis. In some cases, they can be split while they are still length-wise on the base or ground. Mauls often become stuck in a mid-split request for “full-lift” chop to be used. This involves the chopper reswinging the maul, but this time the half- split log while still attached to the embedded maul, often requires one or two additional full-lift chops. Another technique for splitting upright is the thickness of the thickness of the log, usually removing 1/4 of the mass of the log. When repeated, large logs that would ordinarily cause the maul to be embedded on a center-strike can be handled easily. Additionally, the temperature gets colder, the fibers in the log become easier.

Safety

The hammer side of the maul is often used in wood splitting when combined with a splitting wedge, driving the wedge into the wood in the same fashion as the maul itself. This is used when attempting to split logs with a large diameter. Modern mauls are made of a strong enough steel to withstand the metal-to-metal contact without chipping. However, it is still common for the wedge itself to chip off. This can be dangerous as it can be damaged. This is also the easiest way to break a maul’s handle because the wedge is a whole lot, and can be overshot, resulting in hitting full-force on the wedge. This greatly weakens the handle, and can cause it to break after only a few over-shots.

Harder seasoned logs which are often divided into two parts of each other at a given speed, which is a hazard for people or objects nearby.

A common danger for inexperienced splitters is to miss the upright log entirely or give it to a glancing blow. If the maul lands beyond the log, the maul handles may or bounce or break. If the lands in front of the log, it can hit the feet of the splitter if they are in a closed stance. If the maul hits the side of the log without biting, the maul will usually bounce to one side and to the ground. In this situation, even a widened stance may still leave the splitter’s feet vulnerable.

When performing the “full-lift” chop described above, the splitter must never raise the maul and log above his head.

Generally speaking, a maul should never swing to the side. Rather it should be powered through the drop, using force to assist the natural weight of the maul. In addition to a suitable splitting base is one of the most important components to splitting wood with a maul. Wood can be split directly off the ground, but this is a disadvantage for a few reasons. For one the ground, if not frozen, will give on each blow, thus weakening the overall effect of the blow. The second disadvantage is that it can be broken down into a low level, forcing the person to fall back on the swing, which causes back fatigue. The best bases are flush-cut segments of hardwood logs, usually about one foot tall. For the season, the open grain may be treated slightly.

Another technique to improve safety involves pinning the head of the maul to the handle. Repeated use can loosen the head, and if the wedge or expander fails, the head will fly from the handle. Placing a pin involves drilling a small diameter hole through the side of the maul, and through the handle, and usually out the other side. A small, flush, or counter-sunk pin of aluminum or similar material should be placed in the head and secured. It is critical that the pin protrude from the side of the maul head.

See also

  • Firewood
  • Froe
  • Log Splitter
  • Stone axis

References

  • The backyard lumberjack By Philbrick Frank, Stephen Philbrick

Scheitholz

Scheitholz is a German term for log sections that have been split length with an axis or log splitter and that are primarily used for firewood or the manufacture of wood shingles . The individual pieces of timber are called Holzscheite (obs .: Holzscheiter ), derived from the Old High German word scit = “piece”.

Scheitholz boilers are used to burn quantities of Scheithölzer . The term“auf Scheitholz knien ” ( “to kneel there scheitholz ) Was a disciplinary measure used in times WhenCorporal punishment in schools was still permitted. [1]

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Log Splitter

log splitter is a piece of machinery or equipment used for splitting firewood from softwood or hardwood logs that have been pre-cut into sections (rounds), usually by chainsaw or a saw bench. Many log splitters Consist of a hydraulic or electrical rod and piston assembly and thesis are Often rated by the tones of strength They Can generate. The higher the pressure rating, the greater the thickness of the rounds that can be split. The log splitter consists of all four major hydraulic components.

Most models have a 10 ton tone, but professional hydraulic models can exert 30 tons of force or more. There are also manual log splitters, which use mechanical leverage to force logs to a sharpened blade assembly and screw or ‘corkscrew’ types that are driven directly from an agricultural tractor’s power take-off shaft where the splitter is mounted to the linkage point.

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Firewood processor

firewood processor is a machine designed to cut and split firewood with minimal manual handling of the logs. There are typically four parts of the machine, each dedicated to a separate function. Processing begins with a log stack – a stack of logs of 10-12 feet (3.0-3.7 m). Popular brands include Hakki Pilke, Wood Beaver, DYNA, Multitek and Blockbuster. Many individuals use processors commercially and privately as a hobby. Others choose to rent as an alternative to purchasing.

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Firewood

Firewood is any wooden material that is collected and used for fuel . Generally, firewood is not highly processed and is in some form of recognizable log or branch form, compared to other forms of wood fuel like pellets or chips. Firewood can be seasoned (dry) or unseasoned (fresh / wet). It can be classified as hardwood or softwood .

Firewood is a renewable resource . However, demand for this fuel can be expanded to a local level. Firewood can improve local wood supplies.

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Face cord

A cord is an informal unit of volume for stacked firewood, [1] sometimes called a rick . [2]

Width and height is typically the same as a string , but the depth can vary. [3] The front face is the same as a string (4’x8 ‘), hence the name. The depth is generally 16 “(for use in residential fireplaces) but can be anything from 12 inches to 32 inches.

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Firewood

Firewood is any wooden material that is collected and used for fuel . Generally, firewood is not highly processed and is in some form of recognizable log or branch form, compared to other forms of wood fuel like pellets or chips. Firewood can be seasoned (dry) or unseasoned (fresh / wet). It can be classified as hardwood or softwood .

Firewood is a renewable resource . However, demand for this fuel can be expanded to a local level. Firewood can improve local wood supplies.

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Pellet fuel

Pellet fuels (or pellets ) are biofuels made from compressed organic matter or biomass. [1] Pellets can be made of any of the following general categories of biomass: industrial waste and co-products, food waste , agricultural residues , energy crops, and virgin lumber . [2] Wood pellets are the most common type of pellet fuel and are made from compacted sawdust [3] and related industrial products of the milling of lumber, manufacture of wood products and furniture , andconstruction . citation needed ] Other industrial waste sources include empty bunches, palm kernel shells, coconut shells, and tree tops discarded during logging operations. [4] [5] So-called “black pellets” are made of biomass , refined to resemble hard coal and have been developed into existing coal-fired power plants . [6] Pellets are categorized by their heating value , moisture and ashcontent, and dimensions. They can be used as power generation, commercial or residential heating, and cooking . [7] Pellets are extremely dense and can be produced with a low moisture content (below 10%) that allows them to be burned with a very high combustion efficiency . [8]

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Wood fuel

Wood fuel (or fuelwood ) is a fuel, such as firewood , charcoal , chips , sheets, pellets , and sawdust . Source, quantity, quality and application. In many areas, wood is the most readily available form of fuel, requiring tools in the box of picking up dead wood, or just tools, as in any industry, specialized tools, such as skidders and hydraulic wood splitters, have been developed to mechanize production. Sawmill waste and construction industry by-productsalso include various forms of lumber tailings. The discovery of how to make fire is considered to be one of the most important advances. The use of wood as a fuel source for heating is much older than civilization and is assumed to be used by Neanderthals . Today, burning of wood is the largest use of energy derived from a solid fuel biomass . Wood fuel can be used for cooking and heating , and sometimes for fueling steam engines and steam turbines that generate electricity . Wood may be used indoors in a furnace,stove , or fireplace , gold outdoors in a furnace, campfire , gold bonfire .

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woodchips

Woodchips are a medium-sized solid material made by cutting, gold chipping, larger pieces of wood .

Woodchips can be used as a biomass solid fuel and raw material for producing wood pulp . They can also be used as an organic mulch in gardening , landscaping , ecological restoration , bioreactors for denitrification and mushroom cultivation. According to the different chemical and mechanical properties of the masses, the wood logs are mostly peeled, and the bark chips and the wood chips are processed in different processes. The process of making wood chips is called woodchipping and is done with a woodchipper .

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Wood gas generator

wood gas generator is a gasification unit which converts timber or charcoal into a gas , a syngas consisting of atmospheric nitrogen , carbon monoxide , hydrogen , traces of methane , and other gases, which – after cooling and filtering – can then be used to power an internal combustion engine or for other purposes. Historically wood gas generators were often mounted on vehicles , but present studies and developments focused mostly on stationary plants.

History

Origins

Gasification HAD beens year and significant common technology qui Was Widely used to generate coal gas from coal Mainly for lighting Purposes During the 19th and early 20th century. When the first stationary internal combustion engines based on the Otto cycle became available in the 1870s, they began displacing their engines and causing them to lose power. Adoption accelerated after the Otto engine is patent expired in 1886. The potential and practical applicability of gasification to internal combustion engines are well understood from the earliest days of their development.

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Wood briquette

Wood briquettes are made of dry, untreated wood chips (eg wood shavings). They are pressed with high pressure without any binder . By compacting the wood with this high pressure, it turns into a fuel like brown coal .

Advantages

One advantage of wood briquettes is that they have a lower ash and sulfur content, compared to fossil fuels . The carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) balance is even, Because wood briquettes release just as much CO 2 to the atmosphere as the trees used for Their Production ounce absorbed through growth by photosynthesis . In addition, briquettes have a much higher energy content.

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Pellet stove

pellet stove is a stove that burns compressed wood or biomass pellets to create a source of heat for residential and sometimes industrial spaces. By steadily feeding fuel from a storage container (hopper) in a burn pot area, it produces a constant flame that requires little to no physical adjustments. Today’s central heating systems operate with wood pellets as a renewable energy source can reach an efficiency factor of more than 90%.

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Sawdust

Industrially, the correct term is wood dust . In everyday language, it is known as sawdust . Sawdust or wood dust is a by-product or waste product of woodworking operations such as sawing, milling, planing, routing, drilling and sanding. It is composed of fine particles of wood. 

These operations can be performed by woodworking machinery, portable power tools or by use of hand tools. Wood dust is also the byproduct of certain animals, birds and insects which live in wood, such as the woodpecker and carpenter ant . It can present a hazard in manufacturing industries, especially in terms of its flammability. Sawdust is the main component of particleboard. Wood dust is a form of particulate matter, or particulates . Research on wood dust health hazards within the field of occupational health science, and study of wood dust control within the field of indoor air quality engineering.

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Firelog

firelog is a manufactured log constructed to be used as fuel wood . Firelogs are designed to be inexpensive, while being easier to ignite, and burn longer, and more efficiently than firewood . Firelogs are traditionally manufactured using two methods. The first uses only compressed sawdust and the second uses sawdust and paraffin , which is mixed and extruded into a log shape. The extruded firelogs are individually wrapped in paper and can be ignited.

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European Biomass Association

The European Biomass Association (AEBIOM, from the official French name European Association for Biomass ) is a European trade association open to national biomassassociations and bioenergy companies active in Europe . AEBIOM was founded in 1990 and aims to promote biomass production and application throughout Europe.

AEBIOM is the umbrella organization of the European Pellet Council (EPC), [1] the European Industry of Pellet Suppliers (EIPS) and the International Biomass Torrefaction Council (IBTC). [2]

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Studstrup Power Station

The Studstrup Power Station ( Danish : Studstrupværket ) is an oil and coal- fired thermal plant at Studstrup , Denmark . It is operated by DONG Energy . It has an electrical generation capacity of 700 MW and went into service in 1968. The chimney of the power plant is 189.89 meters (623.0 ft) tall. The plant can partially co-fire biomass in the form of straw. Waste heat from the plant is directed through pipes into Aarhus and used for district heating .

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Fyn Power Station

The Fyn Power Station ( Danish : Fynsværket ) is a coal, straw and municipal waste-station operated by Vattenfall in Odense , Denmark . It has eight units, three of qui Were operating as of 2010 : Unit 3, Unit 7 and Unit 8 Unit 3: has a power of 235 MW (coal), unit 7 of 362 MW (coal), unit 8 of 35 MW biomass), and Odense CHP plant 24 MW. Unit 7 has a 235 meter (771 ft) tall chimney, which is the second-tallest in Denmark, unit 3 at 141 meters (463 ft) tall chimney.

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Avedøre Power Station

The Avedøre Power Station ( Danish : Avedøreværket ) is a combined heat and power station, located On in Avedøre , Denmark , just south of Copenhagen , and is owned by Ørsted A / S. Avedøre Power Plant is one of the most efficient of its kind, being able to utilize as much as 94% of the energy in the fuel and convert 49% of the fuel energy into electricity. [1] Apart from using coal , petroleum and natural gas , the plant runs on a wide variety of biomass fuelsstraw and wood pellets . 

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Sugarcane

Sugarcane , or sugar cane , are several species of tall perennial true fat of the genus Saccharum , tribe Andropogoneae , native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South Asiaand Melanesia , and used for sugar production. It has stout, jointed, fibrous stalks that are rich in sugar sucrose , which accumulates in the stalk internodes .

The plant is two to six meters (six to twenty feet) tall. All sugar cane species interbreed and the major commercial cultivars are complex hybrids. Sugarcane belongs to the family Poaceae , an economically important maize, including maize, wheat, rice, and sorghum , and many drilling crops.

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Wood

Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants . It is an organic material , a natural composite of cellulosefibers that are strong in tension and embedded in a matrix of lignin that resists compression. Sometimes Wood is defined as only the secondary xylem in the stems of trees, [1] or it is defined to include more Broadly the same type of tissue elsewhere Such As in the roots of trees or shrubs. quote needed ]In a living tree it performs a support function, enabling woody plants to grow large or to stand up by themselves. It also conveys water and nutrients between the leaves , other growing tissues, and the roots. Wood can also refer to other plant materials with comparable properties, and to material engineered from wood, or wood chips or fiber.

Wood has been used for many years for fuel , as a construction material , for making tools and weapons , furniture and paper , and as a feedstock for the production of purified cellulose and its derivatives, such as cellophane and cellulose acetate .

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Wheat

Wheat is a grass widely grown for its seed , a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food . [1] [2] [3] There are many species of wheat which together make up the genus Triticum ; the most widely grown is common wheat ( T. aestivum ).

The archaeological record suggests that wheat was first grown in the Fertile Crescent around 9600 BCE. Botanically, the wheat kernel is a type of fruit called a caryopsis .

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Triadica sebifera

Triadica sebifera , Also Known As Sapium sebiferum , is Commonly Known As the Chinese tallow , [1] Chinese tallowtree , Florida aspen , chicken tree , gray popcorn tree , [2] andCandleberry tree . [3] The tree is native to eastern Asia , and is most commonly associated with eastern China , Taiwan , and Japan . In these regions, the waxy coating of the seeds is used for candle and soap making, and the leavesare used as herbal medicine to treat boils. The plant sap and leaves are reputed to be toxic, and decaying leaves from the plant are toxic to other species of plant . The specific epithets sebifera and sebiferum mean “wax-bearing” and refer to the vegetable tallow that coats the seeds.

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Stover

Stover is the leaves and stalks of field crops , such as corn ( maize ), sorghum or soybean, which are commonly left in the field after harvesting the grain . It is similar to straw , the spring left after any cereal grain or grass has been harvested at maturity for its seed. It can be directly grazed by cattle or dried for use as fodder . [1] Stover has attracted some attention to a potential fuel source, and has also produced biomass for fermentation or feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production. [2] [3]Stover from various crops can also be used in mushroom compost preparation. [4] [5]

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Bicolor sorghum

Sorghum bicolor , commonly called sorghum [2] ( / s ɔːr ɡ ə m / ) and Also Known As great millet , [3] durra , jowari , or milo , is a grass species cultivated for grain ict, qui is used for food for humans, animal feed, and ethanol production. Sorghum originated in northern Africa, and is now widely grown in tropical and subtropical regions. [4] Sorghum is the world’s fifth-most important cereal crop after rice , wheat ,maize , and barley . S. bicolor is typically an annual, but some cultivars are perennial. It grows in clumps that can reach over 4 m high. The grain is small, ranging from 2 to 4 mm in diameter. Sweet sorghums are sorghum cultivars that are primarily grown for foliage, syrup production, and ethanol; they are taller than those grown for grain. [5] [6]

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Short rotation forestry

Short Rotation Forestry (SRF) is grown as an energy crop for use in power stations, alone or in combination with other fuels such as coal. It is similar to historic fuelwood coppice systems.

Species used

SRF is the practice of growing fast-growing trees that reach their economically optimum size between eight and 20 years old. Species used are selected on this basis and include Alder , Ash , Southern Beech , Birch , Eucalyptus , Poplar , Willow , [1] [2] New varieties of Paulownia elongata , Paper mulberry , Australian Blackwood and Sycamore .

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Short rotation coppice

Short rotation coppice ( SRC ) is coppice grown as an energy crop . This woody solid biomass can be used in such applications as district heating, electric generating stations, or in combination with other fuels. Currently, the leading countries in the UK are Sweden [1] and the UK.

Species used

SRC uses said high yield varieties of poplar and willow . Typically willow species chosen are varieties of the Common Willow Willow Oyster , Salix viminalis . Poplar is generally planted for visual variation rather than being a commercial crop, although some varieties can be outperformed. [2]

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Salix triandra

Salix triandra , with the common names almond willow gold almond-leaved willow , is a species of willow native to Europe and Western and Central Asia . It is found from south-easternEngland east to Lake Baikal , and south to Spain and the Mediterranean east to the Caucasus , and the Alborz Mountains. It usually grows in riparian habitats , on river and stream banks, and in wetlands . [1] [2] [3]

Description

Salix triandra is a deciduous shrub or small tree growing to 10 m (33 ft) tall, usually multistemmed, with an irregular, often leaning crown. Young bark is smooth gray-brown, becoming scaly on older stems with large scales exfoliating (like a plane tree) to leave orange-brown patches. The leaves are broad, lanceolate, 4-11 cm long and 1-3 cm wide, with a serrated margin; they are dull dark green above and green to glaucous-green below, with a 1-2-cm petiole with two conspicuous basal stipules .

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Salicornia bigelovii

Salicornia bigelovii is a species of flowering plant in the family known by the common names dwarf saltwort [2] and dwarf glasswort . It is native to coastal areas of the eastern and southern United States , Belize, and coastal Mexico (both the east and west coasts). [3] [4] [5] It is a plant of salt marshes , a halophyte which grows in saltwater. It is an annual herb producing an erect, branching stem which is joined to many internodes. The fleshy, green to red stem can reach about 60 cm in height. The leaves are usually small plates, peers of which are fused into a band around the stem. The inflorescence is a dense, sticklike spike of flowers. Each flower is made of a penis of sepals enclosing the stamens and stigmas , with no petals. The fruit is an utricle containing tiny, fuzzy seeds. The southern part of the species is represented by the mangrove trees of the Yucatan, where it is a subdominant plant associate in the mangroves. [6]

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rapeseed

Rapeseed ( Brassica napus ), Also Known As rape , [1] oilseed rape [1] (and, in the case of one Particular group of cultivars , canola ), is a bright-yellow flowering member of the family Brassicaceae (mustard or cabbage family), cultivated mainly for its oil-rich seed. It is the third-largest source of vegetable oil in the world. [2]

Etymology and common names

The term “rape” derives from the Latin word for turnip, rapum . [3]

Rapeseed is known by many common names in the English language. Some names-have-been applied only to some subspecies (subsp.), Forms (f.), Gold varieties (var.) Of B. napus . B. napus = B. napus subsp. napus = B. napus subsp. napus f. napus .

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Panicum virgatum

Panicum virgatum , known as switchgrass , is a perennial warm season bunchgrass native to North America, where it occurs naturally from 55 ° N latitude in Canada southwards to theUnited States and Mexico . Switchgrass is one of the dominant species of the North American tallgrass prairie and can be found in prairie grasslands , in native grass pastures , and naturalized along roadsides. It is used primarily for soil conservation ,production drilling , game cover, as anornamental grass , in phytoremediation projects, fiber, electricity, heat production, for biosequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide , and more recently for a biomass crop for ethanol and butanol .

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Paulownia

Paulownia is a genus of six to 17 species (depending on taxonomic authority) of flowering plants in the family Paulowniaceae , related to and sometimes included in the Scrophulariaceae . They are present in much of China , south to northern Laos and Vietnam and are long cultivated elsewhere in eastern Asia , notably in Japan and Korea . They are deciduous trees 12-15 m (39-49 ft) tall, with large, heart-shaped leaves 15-40 cm across, arranged in opposite pairs on the stem. The flowersare produced in early spring on panicles 10-30 cm long, with a tubular purple corolla resembling a foxglove flower. The fruit is a dry capsule , containing thousands of minute seeds .

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Opuntia ficus-indica

Opuntia ficus-indica is a species of cactus that has long been a domesticated crop plant important in agricultural economies throughout arid and semiarid parts of the world. It is thought to have originated in Mexico. [1] Some of the common English names for the plant and its fruits are Indian fig opuntia , Barbary fig , pear cactus , spineless cacti , and prickly pear , with this common name Opuntia species. In Mexican Spanish, the plant is called nopal , while the fruit is called tuna, which are names also used in American English , especially as culinary terms.

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Nicotiana glauca

Nicotiana glauca is a species of tobacco known by the common name tree tobacco . Its leaves are attached to the stalk by petioles (many other Nicotiana species-have sessile leaves) and Its leaves and stems are Neither pubescent nor sticky like Nicotiana tabacum . It Resembles Cestrum parqui purpose differs in the form of leaves and floral fusion of the outer sides. It grows to heights of more than two meters.

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