Bicolor sorghum

Sorghum bicolor , commonly called sorghum [2] ( / s ɔːr ɡ ə m / ) and Also Known As great millet , [3] durra , jowari , or milo , is a grass species cultivated for grain ict, qui is used for food for humans, animal feed, and ethanol production. Sorghum originated in northern Africa, and is now widely grown in tropical and subtropical regions. [4] Sorghum is the world’s fifth-most important cereal crop after rice , wheat ,maize , and barley . S. bicolor is typically an annual, but some cultivars are perennial. It grows in clumps that can reach over 4 m high. The grain is small, ranging from 2 to 4 mm in diameter. Sweet sorghums are sorghum cultivars that are primarily grown for foliage, syrup production, and ethanol; they are taller than those grown for grain. [5] [6]

Sorghum bicolor is the cultivated species of sorghum; its wild relatives make up the botanical genus Sorghum .


Seed head of sorghum in India
Sorghum with a recurved peduncle trait, Turpan basin, Xinjiang, China In some varieties and in certain conditions, the heavy panicle will make the young soft peduncle bend, which then will lignify in this position. Combined with awned inflorescence, this forms has two-fold defense against birds.

The leading producers of sorghum bicolor in 2011 were Nigeria (12.6%), India (11.2%), Mexico City (11.2%), and the United States (10.0%). [7] Sorghum grows in high temperature range, high altitudes, toxic soils and can recover growth after some drought. [5] It has four features that make it one of the most drought-resistant crops:

  • It has a very large root-to-leaf surface area ratio.
  • In times of drought, it will roll its leaves to water loss by perspiration.
  • If drought continues, it will go into dormancy rather than dying.
  • Its leaves are protected by a waxy cuticle.

Richard Pankhurst deferrals (Citing Augustus B. Wylde) That in 19th-century Ethiopia , durra was “Often the first crop sown is newly cultivated land”, explaining this cereal That Did not require the Thorough plowing other crops DID, and Its roots not only decomposed into a good fertilizer, but they help to break the soil while not exhausting the subsoil . [8]


Red on white sorghum grains

Sorghum is grown in many parts of the world today. In the past 50 years, the area planted with sorghum worldwide had increased 66%. [7] In many parts of Asia and Africa, its grain is used to make flat breads that form the staple food of many cultures. [9] [10] The grains can also be popped in a similar fashion to popcorn.

The reclaimed stalks of the sorghum are used to make a decorative millwork material marketed as Kirei board .The species can be used as a source for ethanol fuel , and may be better than maize or sugarcane , as it can grow under harsher conditions. [5] It typically has protein levels around 9%, enabling human populations to subsist on it in times of famine, in contrast to regions where maize has become the staple crop. It is also used for making a traditional corn broom . [11]

Sweet sorghum syrup is known as molasses in some parts of the US, although it is not true molasses .

In China , sorghum is Known As Gaoliang (高粱), and is fermented and distilled to Produce One form of clear spirits Known As baijiu白酒of the Most Famous qui est Moutai (gold Maotai ). Sorghum was ground and floured in China for a long time.

In India , where it is commonly called jwaarie, jowar, jola , or jondhalaa , sorghum is one of the staple sources of nutrition. An Indian bread called bhakri , jowar roti , or jolada rotti , is prepared from this grain. In some countries, sweet sorghum stalks are used for producing biofuel by squeezing the juice and then fermenting it into ethanol . [12] Texas A & M University in the United States is currently running trials to find the best varieties for ethanol production from sorghum leaves and stalks in the USA. [13]

In Korea , it is cooked with rice, or its flour is used to make cake called susu bukkumi .

In Australia , South America , and the United States , grain sorghum is used primarily for livestock feed and a growing number of ethanol plants. [14]

In Central America , tortillas are sometimes made using sorghum. Although corn is the preferred grain for making tortillas, sorghum is widely used and is well accepted in Honduras . White sorghum is preferred for making tortillas. [15]

In several countries in Africa, including Zimbabwe , Burundi , Mali , Burkina Faso , Ghana , and Nigeria, sorghum of both types is used to make traditional opaque beer . Red sorghum imparts to pinkish-brown color to the beer. [15]

Sorghum is one of a number of grains used as wheat substitutes in gluten-free recipes and products.

Agricultural uses

It is used in feed and pasturing for livestock. Its use is limited, however, because the starch and protein in sorghum is more difficult for animals to digest the starches and protein in corn. citation needed ] Research is being done to find a process that will predigest the grain. One study on cattle showed that steam-flaked sorghum was preferable to dry-rolled sorghum because it improved daily weight gain. [7] In hogs, sorghum has been shown to be more effective feed choice than corn when both grains have been processed in the same way. clarification needed ] [7]

The introduction of improved varieties, with improved management practices, has helped increase sorghum productivity. In India, productivity increases to six million hectares of land. The International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics ( ICRISAT ) in collaboration with partners produces varieties of crops including Sorghum . Some 194 improved cultivars of sorghum from the institute have been released. [16]


Research is being conducted to develop a genetic mechanism that is more tolerant to colder temperatures and to reduce the drought tolerance mechanisms, since it is native to tropical climates [17] [18] In the United States, this is important because cost of corn was steadily increasing due to its use in ethanol production for addition to gasoline. Sorghum silage can be used as a replacement for corn silage in the diet for dairy cattle . [19] Other research has shown that a timely harvest of sorghums is essential for a safe feed product. The plants need to be harvested during the time when the plant is completely moisture content is between 63 and 68%, to prevent lodging . [clarification needed ]Approximately, this is when the grain reaches the “soft dough” stage. [ clarification needed ]More research has found that sorghum has higher nutritional value compared to when feeding dairy cattle, and the type of processing is also essential in harvesting the grain’s maximum nutrition. Feeding steam-flaked sorghum showed an increase in milk production when compared to dry-rolling. [19]When a grain is steam-flaked, it is cooked slightly, which makes certain nutrients more available to be digested.

Additional research is being done on a food source. Sorghum is resistant to drought- and heat-related stress. The genetic diversity between subspecies of sorghum makes it more resistant to pests and pathogens than other food sources. In addition, it is highly efficient in converting solar energy to chemical energy, and also in use of water. [20] All of these characteristics make it a promising candidate to meet the increasing global food demand. As such, many groups around the world are pursuing research initiatives around sorghum (specifically Sorghum bicolor ): Purdue University , [21] HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology, [20]Danforth Plant Science Center, [20] and the University of Nebraska , [22] among others.

Another research application of sorghums is a biofuel. Sweet sorghum has a high sugar content in its stalk, which can be turned into ethanol. The biomass can be burned and turned into charcoal, syn-gas, and bio-oil.


The genome of bicolor Sorghum was sequenced between 2005 and 2007. [23] [24]

Pests & Pests

Sorghum is a host of parasitic plant Striga hermonthica . [25] This parasite is a devastating pest on the crop. The European corn borer ( Ostrinia nubilalis ) was introduced to North America via the transport of infested Sorghum broom corn. [26]

See also

  • 3-Deoxyanthocyanidin
  • Apigeninidin
  • Commercial sorghum
  • List of antioxidants in food


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