Biomass is an industry for burning energy by burning wood, and other organic matter . Burning biomass releases carbon emission, goal has-been classed as a renewable energy source in the EU and UN legal frameworks, plant Because stocks can BE REPLACED with new growth. [1] It has become popular among coal power stations, which switch from coal to biomass in order to convert to renewable energy generation. Biomass most often refers to plants or plant-based materials that are not used for food or feed, and are commonly called lignocellulosic biomass. [2]As an energy source, biomass can be used directly by combustion to produce heat, or indirectly after conversion to various forms of biofuel . Biomass conversion can be achieved by various methods which are broadly classified into: thermal , chemical , and biochemical methods.

Sources of Biomass

Historically, humans have harnessed biomass-derived energy since the time when people began burning wood to make fire. [3] Even today, biomass is the only source of fuel for domestic use in many developing countries. Biomass is all biologically-produced based on carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The estimated biomass production in the world is 104.9 petagrams (104.9 × 10 15 g – about 105 billion metric tons) of carbon per year, about half in the ocean and half on land. [4]

Wood remains the largest biomass energy source today; [3] Examples include forest residues, such as dead trees, branches and tree stumps , yard clippings, wood chips and even municipal solid waste . Wood energy is derived by using lignocellulosic biomass (second-generation biofuels) as fuel. Harvested wood can be used as a fuel oil or as a feedstock for fuel pellets or other forms of fuels. The largest source of energy from pulping liquor or ” black liquor ,” a waste product of pulp processes, paper and paperboard industry. quote needed ]In the second sense, biomass includes plant or animal that can be converted into fibers or other industrial chemicals , including biofuels . Industrial biomass can be grown from numerous types of plants, including miscanthus , [5] switchgrass , hemp , corn , poplar , willow , sorghum , sugarcane , bamboo , [6] and a variety of tree species, ranging from eucalyptus to oil palm ( palm oil ).

Based on the source of biomass, biofuels are classified broadly into two major categories. First-generation biofuels are derived from sources such as sugarcane and corn starch. Sugars present en cette biomass are fermented to produce bioethanol , an alcohol fuel which can be used directly in a fuel cell to produce electricity or add an additive to gasoline. However, utilizing food-based resources for fuel production only aggravates the food shortage problem. [7] Second-generation biofuels , on the other hand, utilize non-food-based biomass sources such as agriculture and municipal waste. These biofuels mostly consist of lignocellulosic biomass, which is not limited and is a low-value waste for many industries. Despite being the favored alternative, economic production of second-generation biofuels is not yet achieved. These issues arise mainly from chemical inertness and structural rigidity of lignocellulosic biomass . [8] [9] [10]

Plant energy is produced by crops grown SPECIFICALLY for use as fuel That offer high biomass output per hectare with low input energy. 7.5-8 tonnes of grain per hectare, and straw, which typically yields 3.5-5 tonnes per hectare in the UK. [11] The grain can be used for liquid transportation while the straw can be burned to produce heat or electricity. Plant biomass can also be degraded from cellulose to glucose through a series of chemical treatments, and the resulting sugar can be used as a first-generation biofuel.

The main contributors of waste are municipal solid waste , manufacturing waste , and landfill gas . Energy derived from biomass is projected to be the largest non-hydroelectric renewable resource of electricity in the US between 2000 and 2020. [12]

Biomass can be converted to other forms of energy like methane gas or transportation fuels like ethanol and biodiesel . Rotting garbage, and agricultural waste, all release methane gas, also called landfill gas or biogas . Crops such as corn and sugarcane can be fermented to produce the transportation fuel ethanol. Biodiesel, another fuel transportation, can be produced from leftover food products like vegetable oils and animal fats. [13] Several biodiesel companies simply collect cooking oil and convert it into biodiesel. [14] Also, biomass-to-liquids (called “BTLs”) and cellulosic ethanol are still under research. [15] [16]

There is some research involving algae or algae-derived biomass, as this non-food resource can be produced at rates of other types of land-based agriculture, such as corn and soy. Once harvested, it can be fermented to produce biofuels such as ethanol , butanol , and methane , as well as biodiesel and hydrogen . Efforts are made to identify which species of algae are most suitable for energy production. Genetic engineering approaches could also be used to improve microalgae as a source of biofuel. [17]

The biomass used for electricity generation varies by region. Forest by-products, such as wood residues, are common in the US . Agricultural waste is common in Mauritius (sugar cane residue) and Southeast Asia (rice husks). Animal husbandry residues, such as poultry litters , are common in the UK . [18]

Sewage sludge can be another source of biomass. For example, the Omni Processor is a process which uses sludge as a fuel for sludge treatment , with surplus electrical energy being generated for export. [19] [20]

Comparison of total plant biomass yields (dry basis)

World resources

If the total annual primary production of biomass is just over 100 billion (1.0E + 11) tonnes of carbon / yr, [21] and the energy reserve per tonne of biomass is between about 1.5 × 10 3 and 3 × 10 kilowatt hours (5 × 10 6 and 10 × 10 6 BTUs), [22] or 24.8 TW average, then biomass could be 1.4 times the annual average 150 × 10 3 terawatt-hours required for current world energy consumption . [23]For reference, the total solar power on earth is 174 PW. The biomass equivalent to solar energy ratio is 143 ppm (parts per million), from current living system coverage on Earth. The best currently available solar cell efficiency is 20-40%. Additionally, Earth’s internal radioactive energy production, largely the driver for volcanic activity, continental drift, etc., is in the same range of power, 20 TW. At around 50% carbon content in biomass, annual production, this corresponds to about 6% atmospheric carbon content in the form of CO 2(for the current 400 ppm).

(1 × 10 11 tonnes biomass annually produced approximately 25 TW · h)
Annual world biomass energy equivalent = 16.7-33.4 TW · h.
Annual world energy consumption = 17.7 TW · h. On average, biomass production is 1.4 times larger than world energy consumption.

Common commodity food crops

  • Agave: 1-21 tones / acre [24]
  • Alfalfa: 4-6 tones / acre [25]
  • Barley: grains – 1.6-2.8 tons / acre, straw – 0.9-2.5 tons / acre, total – 2.5-5.3 tons / acre [26]
  • Corn: grains – 3.2-4.9 tons / acre, stalks and stovers – 2.3-3.4 tons / acre, total – 5.5-8.3 tons / acre [25]
  • Jerusalem artichokes: tubers 1-8 tones / acre, tops 2-13 tones / acre, total 9-13 tones / acre [27]
  • Oats: grains – 1.4-5.4 tons / acre, straw – 1.9-3.2 tons / acre, total – 3.3-8.6 tons / acre [26]
  • Rye: grains – 2.1-2.4 tons / acre, straw – 2.4-3.4 tons / acre, total – 4.5-5.8 tons / acre [26]
  • Wheat: grains – 1.2-4.1 tons / acre, straw – 1.6-3.8 tons / acre, total – 2.8-7.9 tons / acre [26]

Woody crops

  • Oil palm: fronds 11 ton / acre, whole fruit bunches 1 ton / acre, trunks 30 ton / acre [28]

Not yet in commercial planting

  • Giant miscanthus: 5-15 tones / acre [29]
  • Sunn hemp: 4.5 tones / acre [30]
  • Switchgrass: 4-6 tones / acre [25]

Genetically modified varieties

  • Energy Sorghum

Biomass conversion

Thermal conversions

Thermal conversion processes using heat as the dominant mechanism to convert biomass into another chemical form. Also known as thermal oil heating, it is a type of indirect heating in which a liquid phase heat transfer medium is heated and circulated to one or more heat energy users within a closed loop system. [31] The basic alternatives of combustion ( torrefaction , pyrolysis , and gasification ) are separated by the extent to which the chemical reactions are allowed to proceed (mainly controlled by the availability of oxygen and conversion temperature).

Energy created by burning biomass is more rapidly, eg tropical countries. There are other hydrothermal upgrading (HTU) and hydroprocessing methods . Some have been developed for the use of high moisture content biomass, including aqueous slurries, and allow them to be converted into more convenient forms. Some of the applications of thermal conversion are combined heat and power (CHP) and co-firing . In a typical dedicated biomass power plant, efficiencies range from 20-27% ( higher heating value basis). [32]Biomass cofiring with coal, by contrast, has been shown to be more efficient (30-40%, higher heating value basis). [33]

Chemical conversion

A range of chemical processes can be used to convert biomass into other forms, such as to be more easily used, transported or stored, or to exploit some property of the process itself. Many of these processes are based on a large number of similar coal-based processes, such as Fischer-Tropsch synthesis , methanol production, olefins (ethylene and propylene), and similar chemical or fuel feedstocks. In most cases, the first step involves gasification, which step is the most expensive and involves the greatest technical risk. [34] Biomass is more difficult to feed into the world. Therefore, biomass gasificationFuel production of carbon monoxide , hydrogen , and traces of methane . This gas mixture, called a producer gas , can provide fuel for various vital processes, such as internal combustion engines , as a substitute for heating oil in direct heat applications. [35]This method is far more attractive than ethanol or biomass production, where only particular biomass materials can be used to produce a fuel. In addition, biomass gasification is a desirable process for producing gas, which is a very useful fuel. [35]

Conversion of biomass to biofuel can be Achieved également via selective conversion of individual components of biomass. [37] For example, cellulose , [37] glucose , [38] hydroxymethylfurfural [39], etc. can be converted to intermediate platform chemical such as sorbitol . These chemicals are then further reacted to produce hydrogen or hydrocarbon fuels. [40]

Biomass also has the potential to be converted to multiple commodity chemicals. Halomethanes were successfully produced by a combination of A. fermentans and engineered S. cerevisiae. [41] This method converts NaX salts and unprocessed biomass such as switchgrass , sugarcane, corn stover, or poplar into halomethanes. S-adenosylmethionine, which is naturally occurring in S. cerevisiae, allows a group to be transferred. Production levels of 150 mg L-1H-1 iodomethane were achieved. At these levels approximately 173000 L of capacity would need to be operated just to replace the United States’ need for iodomethane. [41]However, an advantage of this method is that it uses NaI rather than I2; NaI is significantly less hazardous than I2. This method can be applied to produce ethylene in the future.

Other chemical processes such as converting straight and waste vegetable oils into biodiesel is transesterification . [42]

Biochemical conversion

As biomass is a natural material, many highly efficient biochemical processes have been developed in the field of biomass, and many of these biochemical conversion processes can be harnessed.

Biochemical conversion makes use of the enzymes of bacteria and other microorganisms to break down biomass into gaseous or liquid fuels, such as biogas or bioethanol. [43] In most cases, microorganisms are used to perform the conversion process: anaerobic digestion , fermentation , and composting .

Glycoside hydrolases are the enzymes involved in the degradation of the major fraction of biomass, such as polysaccharides present in starch and lignocellulose. Thermostable variants are gaining increasing roles as catalysts in biorefining applications in the future bioeconomy, since recalcitrant biomass often requires thermal treatment for more efficient degradation. Some examples in today’s processing include production of monosaccharides for food applications and their use for microbial conversion to metabolites such as bioethanol and chemical intermediates, oligocaccharide production for prebiotic (nutrition) applications and production of surfactants alkyl glycoside type. [44]

Electrochemical conversion

In addition to combustion, biomass / biofuels can be directly converted to electrical energy through electrochemical (electrocatalytic) oxidation of the material. This Can Be Performed Directly in a Direct carbon fuel cell , [45] Direct liquid fuel cells Such As Direct methanol fuel cell , a Direct methanol fuel cell , a Direct formic acid fuel cell has L-ascorbic Acid Fuel Cell (vitamin C fuel oil cell), [46] and a microbial fuel cell. [47] The fuel can also be consumed via a fuel cell system containing a reformer which converts the biomass into a mixture of CO and H2 before it is consumed in the fuel cell.[48]

In the United States

The biomass power generation industry in the United States consists of approximately 11,000 MW of summer operating capacity to supply power to the grid, and produces about 1.4 percent of the US electricity supply. [49]

Public Service of New Hampshire (MWS) in 2006 replaced at 50 MW coal boiler with a new 50 MW biomass boiler at its Schiller Station facility in Portsmouth, NH. [50] The boiler’s biomass fuel is from sources in NH, Massachusetts and Maine.

Currently, the New Hope Power Partnership is the largest biomass power plant in the US. The 140 MW facility uses sugarcane fiber ( bagasse ) and recycled urban wood as fuel to generate sufficient power for its large milling and refining operations. nearly 60,000 homes. [51] [52]

In Vermont in 2017, biomass cost $ 85 per megawatt, and wholesale electricity was about $ 25 megawatt, making biomass more expensive, especially when compared to fracked natural gas. [53]

Second-generation biofuels

Second-generation biofuels were not (in 2010) produced commercially, but a significant number of research activities were taking place in North America, Europe and also in some emerging countries. These tend to use feedstock produced by Reproducing Rapidly enzymes or bacteria from various sources Including excrement [54] grown in cell cultures or hydroponics . [55] [56] There is a huge potential for second generation biofuels but non-edible feedstock resources are highly under-utilized. [57]

Environmental damage

Using biomass as a fuel Produces air pollution in the form of carbon monoxide , carbon dioxide , NOx (nitrogen oxides), VOCs ( volatile organic compounds ), particulates and other pollutants at levels Above Those from traditional fuel sources Such as coal or natural gas in some cases (such as with indoor heating and cooking). [58] [59] [60] Use of wood biomass as fuel can also produce less particulate and other pollutants than open burning as seen in wildfires or direct heat applications. [61] Black carbon- a pollutant created by combustion of fossil fuels, biofuels, and biomass – is possibly the second largest contributor to global warming. [62] : 56-57 In 2009 a Swedish study of the giant brown haze that periodically covers large areas in South Asia determined that it had been predominantly produced by biomass burning, and to a lesser extent by fossil-fuel burning. [63] Researchers Measured has significant concentration of 14 C (Carbon-14), Which is associated with recent plant life Rather than with fossil fuels. [64]

Biomass power plant size is often driven by biomass availability in close proximity to the cost of the (bulky) fuel play a key factor in the plant’s economics. Rail and especially shipping on waterways can significantly reduce transport costs, which has led to a global biomass market. [65] To make small plants of 1 MW el economically profitable those power plants need to be able to convert to a high level of energy efficiency. an organic working medium. Such small power plants can be found in Europe. [66] [67] [68] [69]

The carbon dioxide is released from the atmosphere as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) . The amount of carbon stored in dry wood is approximately 50% by weight. [70] However, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations , plant matter can be replaced by planting for new growth. Where the biomass is from forests, the time to recapture the carbon storage capacity, and the carbon storage capacity of the forest may be reduced overall if destructive forestry techniques are employed. [71] [72] [73] [74]

Industry professionals claim that a range of issues can affect a plant’s ability to comply with standard emissions. Some of these challenges, unique to biomass plants, include inconsistent fuel supplies and age. The type and amount of the fuel supply are completely related factors; the fuel can be in the form of debris or agricultural waste (such as removal of invasive species or orchard trimmings). In addition, many of the biomass plants are old, and have not been standardized to meet stringent standards. In fact, many are based on technologies developed by US President Jimmy Carter , who created the United States Department of Energy in 1977. [3]

The US Energy Information Administration projected that by 2017, biomass is expected to be as much as, but slightly more expensive than solar panels. [75] In another EIA study released, concerning the government’s plan to implement a 25% renewable energy standard by 2025, the agency assumed that 598 million tons of biomass would be available, accounting for 12% of the renewable energy in the plan. [76]

The adoption of biomass-based energy plants has been a slow but steady process. Between the years of 2002 and 2012 the production of these plants has increased 14%. [77] In the United States, alternative electricity-production sources 13% of power; of this fraction, biomass contributes approximately 11% of the alternative production. [78] According to a study conducted in early 2012, the 107 operating biomass plants in the United States, have been cited by federal or state regulators for the violation of clean air or water laws over the past 5 years. This data also includes minor offenses. [77]

Despite harvesting, biomass crops can sequester carbon. For example, soil organic carbon has been observed in the past, especially at depths below 30 cm (12 in). [79] The grass sequesters the carbon in its increased root biomass. Typically, perennial crops are much more important than non-harvested living biomass, both living and dead, and much less disruption in cultivation.

The proposal that is biomass is carbon-neutral put forward in the early 1990s that is more mature than that of mature, intact forests sequester carbon more effectively than cut-over areas. When a tree’s carbon is released into the atmosphere in a single pulse, it contributes to climate change much more than woodland timber rotting slowly over decades. Current studies indicate that “even after 50 years the forest has not recovered to its initial carbon storage” and “the optimal strategy is likely to be protected of the standing forest”. [80] [ not in citation given ] [81] [82]

The pros and cons of biomass carbon emissions can be quantified with the ILUC factor. There is controversy surrounding the use of the ILUC factor. [83]

Forest-based biomass has recently come under fire from a number of environmental organizations, including Greenpeace and the Natural Resources Defense Council , for the harmful impacts it can have on forests and climate. Greenpeace recently released a report entitled “Firing a BioMess” [84] which outlines their concerns around forest-based biomass. Because any part of the tree can be burned, the harvesting of trees for energy production encourages whole-tree harvesting, which removes more nutrients and soil cover than regular harvesting, and can be harmful to the long-term health of the forest. In some jurisdictions, forest biomass removal is one of the most important features of forest ecosystems. Environmental groups also cite recent scientific research, which is one of the most important examples of carbon recovery in the world. furthermore, logging operations may disturb forest soils and cause them to release stored carbon. quote needed ]In light of the pressing need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the face of the effects of climate change , a number of environmental groups are contrasting the large-scale use of forest biomass energy production. [84] [85]

Supply chain issues

With the seasonality of biomass supply and a great variability in sources, supply chains play a key role in cost-effective delivery of bioenergy. There are several unique challenges to bioenergy supply chains: [86]

Technical issues

  • Inefficiencies of the conversion processes
  • Storage methods for sale availability
  • Complex multi-component constituents incompatible with maximizing efficiency of single purpose use
  • High water content of many biomass feedstock
  • Conflicting decisions (technologies, rentals, and routes)
  • Complex location analysis (source points, inventory facilities, and production plants)

Logistic issues

  • Seasonal availability and storage solutions and / or seasonally idle facilities
  • Low bulk-density and / or high water content
  • Finite productivity per area and / or time inconsistent with the approach to economy of scale focusing on maximizing facility size

Financial issues

  • The limits for the traditional approach to economy of scale which focuses on maximizing single facility size
  • Unavailability and complexity of life cycle costing data
  • Lack of required transport infrastructure
  • Limited flexibility or inflexibility to energy demand
  • Risks associated with new technologies (insurability, performance, rate of return)
  • Extended market volatilities (conflicts with alternative markets for biomass)
  • Difficulty or impossible to use financial hedging methods to control cost

Social issues

  • Lack of participatory decision making
  • Lack of public / community awareness
  • Local supply chain impacts vs. global benefits
  • Health and safety risks
  • Extra pressure on transport sector
  • Decreasing the aesthetics of rural areas

Policy and regulatory issues

  • Impact of fossil fuel tax on biomass transport
  • Lack of incentives to create competition among bioenergy producers
  • Focus on technology options and less attention to biomass
  • Lack of support for sustainable supply chain solutions

Institutional and organizational issues

  • Varied ownership arrangements and supply chain
  • Lack of supply chain standards
  • Impact of organizational norms and rules on decision making and supply chain coordination
  • Immaturity of change management practices in biomass supply chains

See also

  • biochar
  • Bioenergy
  • Biofact (biology)
  • Biofuel
  • Biomass (ecology)
  • Biomass gasification
  • Biomass heating systems
  • Biomass to liquid
  • Bioproduct
  • Biorefinery
  • Carbon
  • European Biomass Association
  • Carbon footprint
  • Cow dung
  • Energy crop
  • Energy forestry
  • Firewood
  • Microgeneration
  • Microbial electrolysis cell hydrogen hydrogen methane
  • Pellet fuel
  • Thermal mass
  • Wood fuel (a traditional biomass fuel)
  • woodchips


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  39. Jump up^ Chheda, Juben N .; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy; Dumesic, James A. (2007). “Production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural by dehydration of biomass-derived mono- and polysaccharides”. Green Chemistry . 9 (4): 342. doi : 10.1039 / B611568C .
  40. Jump up^ Huber, George W .; Iborra, Sara; Corma, Avelino (2006). “Synthesis of Transportation Fuels from Biomass: Chemistry, Catalysts, and Engineering”. Chemical Reviews . 106 (9): 4044-4098. doi : 10.1021 / cr068360d . PMID  16967928 .
  41. ^ Jump up to:b Alaimo, Peter & Amanda-Lynn Marshall (2010) “Useful Products from Complex Starting Materials: Common Chemicals from Biomass Feedstocks” Chemistry – A European Journal 15, 4970-4980.
  42. Jump up^ Conversion technologies. Retrieved on 2012-02-28.
  43. Jump up^ “Biochemical Conversion of Biomass” . BioEnergy Consult . 2014-05-29 . Retrieved 2016-10-18 .
  44. Jump up^ Linares-Pasten, JA; Andersson, M .; Nordberg Karlsson, E (2014). “Thermostable glycoside hydrolases in biorefinery technologies”. Current Biotechnology . 3 (1): 26-44. doi : 10.2174 / 22115501113026660041 .
  45. Jump up^ Munnings, C .; Kulkarni, A .; Giddey, S .; Badwal, SPS (August 2014). “Biomass to power conversion in a direct carbon fuel cell”. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy . 39 (23): 12377-12385. doi : 10.1016 / j.ijhydene.2014.03.255 .
  46. Jump up^ Kim, Ye Eun (17 May 2011). “Surface Modifications of a Carbon Catalyst Anode by Control of Functional Groups for Vitamin C Fuel Cells”. Electrocatalysis . 2 : 200-206. doi : 10.1007 / s12678-011-0055-0 .
  47. Jump up^ Knight, Chris (2013). “Chapter 6 – Application of Microbial Fuel Cells to Power Sensor Networks for Ecological Monitoring”. Wireless Sensor Networks and Ecological Monitoring . Smart Sensors, Measurement and Instrumentation. 3 . pp. 151-178. doi : 10.1007 / 978-3-642-36365-8_6 . ISBN  978-3-642-36364-1 .
  48. Jump up^ Badwal, Sukhvinder PS; Giddey, Sarbjit S .; Munnings, Christopher; Bhatt, Anand I .; Hollenkamp, ​​Anthony F. (24 September 2014). “Emerging electrochemical energy conversion and storage technologies (open access)” . Frontiers in Chemistry . 2 . doi : 10.3389 / fchem.2014.00079 . PMC  4174133  . PMID  25309898 .
  49. Jump up^ “US Electric Net Summer Capacity” . US Energy Information Administration. July 2001 . Retrieved 2010-01-25 .
  50. Jump up^ The tenth anniversary of Northern Wood Power – November 22, 2016
  51. Jump up^ Agreement for Generating Balancing Service. (PDF). Retrieved on 2012-02-28.
  52. Jump up^ Biomass: Can Renewable Power Grow on Trees? . Retrieved on 2012-02-28.
  53. Jump up^ Starr, Tena (August 2, 2017). “Blek outlook for forestry industry” . The Chronicle . Barton, Vermont. pp. 1A, 20A, 21A . Retrieved August 9, 2017.
  54. Jump up^ free fatty acid pools in Escherichia coli
  55. Jump up^ Biomass-to-Fuel Conversion (Princeton University USA)
  56. Jump up^ The Nocera lab
  57. Jump up^ Kosinkova, Jana; Doshi, Amar; Mayor, Juliette; Ristovski, Zoran; Brown, Richard; Rainey, Thomas (September 2015). “Measuring the availability of biomass for biofuels and the potential for microalgae” . Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews . 49 : 1271-1285. doi : 10.1016 / j.rser.2015.04.084 .
  58. Jump up^ Eartha Jane Melzer (January 26, 2010). “Proposed biomass plant: Better than coal?” . The Michigan Messenger . Archived from the original on 2010-02-05.
  59. Jump up^ Zhang, J .; Smith, KR (2007). “Household Air Pollution from Coal and Biomass Fuels in China: Measurements, Health Impacts, and Interventions” . Environmental Health Perspectives . 115 (6): 848-855. doi : 10.1289 / ehp.9479 . PMC  1892127  . PMID  17589590 .
  60. Jump up^ “Announcement”. Archives of Virology . 130 : 225. 1993. doi : 10.1007 / BF01319012 .
  61. Jump up^ Springsteen, Bruce; Christofk, Tom; Eubanks, Steve; Mason, Tad; Clavin, Chris; Storey, Brett (2011). Emission Reductions from Woody Biomass Waste for Energy as an Alternative to Open Burning. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association . 61 (1): 6. doi : 10.3155 / 1047-3289.61.1.63 .
  62. Jump up^ Starke, Linda (2009). State of the World 2009: Into a Warming World: A WorldWatch Institute Progress Report Toward a Sustainable Society . WW Norton & Company. ISBN  978-0-393-33418-0 .
  63. Jump up^ Gustafsson, O .; Krusa, M .; Zencak, Z .; Sheesley, RJ; Granat, L .; Engstrom, E .; Praveen, PS; Rao, PSP; et al. (2009). “Brown Clouds over South Asia: Biomass or Fossil Fuel Combustion?”. Science . 323 (5913): 495-8. doi : 10.1126 / science.1164857 . PMID  19164746 .
  64. Jump up^ Biomass burning leads to Asian brown cloud ,Chemical & Engineering News,87, 4, 31
  65. Jump up^ Heinimö, J .; Junginger, M. (2009). “Production and trading of biomass for energy – an overview of the global status” (PDF) . Biomass and Bioenergy . 33 (9): 1310. doi : 10.1016 / j.biombioe.2009.05.017 .
  66. Jump up^ Use of biomass by the help of the ORC process ArchivedJuly 21, 2011, at theWayback Machine.. Retrieved on 2012-02-28.
  67. Jump up^ How to Change Climate Change Will Worsen Global Warming.
  68. Jump up^ Biofuel crops may be global warming: study. (2008-02-09). Retrieved on 2012-02-28.
  69. Jump up^ Biodiesel Will Not Drive Down Global Warming. (2007-04-24). Retrieved on 2012-02-28.
  70. Jump up^ Forest volume-to-biomass models and estimates of mass for dead and dead trees of US forests ArchivedJuly 11, 2007, at theWayback Machine.. (PDF). Retrieved on 2012-02-28.
  71. Jump up^ Prasad, Ram. “SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR DRY FORESTS OF SOUTH ASIA” . Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations . Retrieved 11 August 2010 .
  72. Jump up^ “Treetrouble: Testimonies on the Negative Impact of Large-scale Tree Plantations Prepared for the Sixth Conference of the Parties on the Convention on Climate Change” . Friends of the Earth International. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011 . Retrieved 11 August 2010 .
  73. Jump up^ Laiho, Raija; Sanchez, Felipe; Tiarks, Allan; Dougherty, Phillip M .; Trettin, Carl C. “Impacts of intensive forestry on early rotation in carbon pools in the southeastern US” . United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 11 August 2010 .
  74. Jump up^ “THE FINANCIAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FEASIBILITY OF SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT” . Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations . Retrieved 11 August 2010 .
  75. Jump up^ US Energy Information Administration (April 2010). Annual Energy Outlook 2010 (PDF) (Report No. DOE / EIA-0383 (2010)). Washington, DC. National Energy Information Center . Retrieved September 27, 2012 .
  76. Jump up^ “How Biomass Energy Works” . Union of Concerned Scientists . Retrieved 4 April 2013 .
  77. ^ Jump up to:b Scheck, Justin; et al. (July 23, 2012). “Wood-Fired Plants Generate Violations” . Wall Street Journal . Retrieved September 27, 2012 .
  78. Jump up^ “Learning About Renewable Energy” . NREL’s vision is to develop technology . National Renewable Energy Laboratory . Retrieved 4 April2013 .
  79. Jump up^ Soil Carbon under Switchgrass Stands and Cultivated Cropland (Interpretive Technical Summary and Abstract). USDA Agricultural Research Service, April 1, 2005
  80. Jump up^ Jobs and Energy. Jobs and Energy. Retrieved on 2012-02-28.
  81. Jump up^ Edmunds, Joe; Richard Richets; Marshall Wise, “Future Carbon Fossil Fuel Emissions Without Policy Intervention: A Review”. In TML Wigley, David Steven Schimel,The Carbon Cycle. Cambridge University Press, 2000, pp.171-189
  82. Jump up^ Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; -Detlef Schulze, E .; Börner, Annett; Knohl, Alexander; Hessenmöller, Dominik; Law, Beverly E .; Here, Philippe; Grace, John (September 11, 2008). “Old growth forests as global carbon sinks”. Nature . 455 (7210): 213-215. doi : 10.1038 / nature07276 . PMID  18784722 .
  83. Jump up^ “Biofuel Companies Question ARB’s Inclusion of Indirect Effects in Low Carbon Fuel Standard”. Green Car Congress. 2008-10-24. Retrieved 2009-04-28.
  84. ^ Jump up to:b “Fueling a Biomess” (PDF) . Greenpeace . October 2011 . Retrieved 2015-06-14 .
  85. Jump up^ NRDC fact sheet lays out biomass basics, campaign calls for action to tell EPA our forests are not fuel | Sasha Lyutse’s Blog | Switchboard, from NRDC. (2011-05-02). Retrieved on 2012-02-28.
  86. Jump up^ Mafakheri, F .; Nasiri, F. (2014). “Modeling of biomass-to-energy supply chain operations: Applications, challenges and research directions”. Energy Policy . 67 : 116. doi : 10.1016 / j.enpol.2013.11.071 .