Camelina sativa

Camelina sativa is a flowering plant in the family Brassicaceae and is usually Known in English as camelina , gold-of-pleasure , or false flax , wild flax aussi occasionally, linseed dodder, German sesame, and Siberian oilseed. It is native to Central Asian areas. This plant is cultivated as oilseed crop Mainly in Europe and in North America.


As a summer or winter annual plant , camelina grows to heights of 30-120 cm (12-47 in), with branching stems which become woody at maturity. The leaves are alternate on the stem, lanceolate with a length of 2-8 cm (0.79-3.15 in) and a width of 2-10 mm (0.079-0.394 in). Leaves and stems may be partially hairy. It blooms in the UK, between June and July. [1] Its abundant, four-petaled flowers are pale yellow in color, and cross-shaped. [1] Later, it produces a fruit which is pear shaped with a short beak. [1] The seeds are brown, [1] or orange in color and a length of 2-3 mm (0.079-0.118 in). [2]The 1,000-seed weight ranges from 0.8-2.0 g (0.028-0.071 oz). [3]


Today, camelina is found, wild or cultivated, in almost all regions of Europe, Asia, and North America, but also in South America , Australia , and New Zealand . [2] Camelina seems to be particularly suited to cold semiarid climate zone ( steppes and meadows). [4]


C. sativa has been traditionally cultivated as an oilseed crop to produce vegetable oil and animal feed. Ample archeological evidence shows in Europe for at least 3,000 years. The earliest findsites include the Neolithic levels at Auvernier , Switzerland (dated to the second millennium BC), the Chalcolithic level at Pefkakia in Greece (dated to the third millennium BC), and Sucidava-Celei, Romania ( circa 2200 BC). [5] During the Bronze Age and Iron Age , it was an important agricultural crop in northern Greece beyond the current range of the olive. [6] [7]It was also found in Denmark , and during the Stone Age in Hungary . [1] It is not known nor is it known to the Roman Empire. [8] As early as 600 BC, it was a monoculture around the Rhine River Valley, and was thought to have spread by monocultures.

Until the 1940s, it has been grown in Europe and is currently growing in Europe. Camelina oil Was used in oil lamps (until the modern harnessing of natural gas , propane , and electricity ) and as an edible false flax oil. [3] It was Possibly Brought to North America unintentionally as a weed with flaxseed, and HAS HAD trading limited extent up to modern times. Currently, the breeding potential is unexplored compared to other oilseeds commercially grown around the world. [9]


It has many uses; including the stem fibers used for brushes, the seed oil for cosmetics or burnt in lamps. Herbalists also used the oil in herbal medicine. [1]

Human food

The edible seeds, [1] can be sprinkled on salads or mixed with water to produce an egg substitute.

The crop is now being white Researched due to ict Exceptionally high level (up to 45%) of omega-3 fatty acids , qui est uncommon in vegetable sources. Seeds contain 38 to 43% oil and 27 to 32% protein. [10] Over 50% of the fatty acids in cold-pressed camelina oil are polyunsaturated . The oil is also very rich in natural antioxidants , such as tocopherols , making this highly stable oil very resistant to oxidation and rancidity . It has 1-3% erucic acid . The vitamin content of camelina oil is approximately 110 mg / 100 g. It is well suited for cookingit has an almond-like flavor and aroma. [11]

Typical fatty acid content of camelina, canola, linseed and sunflower oils in%. [3]
16: 0 18: 0 18: 1 18: 2 (omega-6) 18: 3 (omega-3) 20: 0 20: 1 22: 1
Camelina 7.8 3.0 16.8 23.0 31.2 0 12.0 2.8
canola 6.2 0 61.3 21.6 6.6 0 0 0
Linseed 5.3 3.1 16.2 14.7 59.6 0 0 0.9
Sunflower 6.0 4.0 16.5 72.4 0 0 0 0

Biodiesel and jet fuel

The US state of Montana has been growing up for its potential as a biofuel and biolubricant. [12] Plant scientists at the University of Idaho , Washington State University , and other institutions also are studying this emerging biodiesel .

Studies have shown camelina-based jet fuel reduces net carbon emissions by about 80%. The United States Navy thing it has the feedstock for their first test of aviation biofuel , [13] and successfully operated a static F414 engine (used in the F / A-18 Hornet and F / A-18E / F Super Hornet ) in October 2009 at Patuxent River Naval Air Station , Maryland . [14] The United States Air Force also began testing the fuel in its aircraft in March 2010. [15] On 22 April 2010, the US Navy observed Earth Dayby conduct a flight test lasting about 45 minutes at Naval Air Station Patuxent River of F / A-18 Super Hornet – nicknamed the “Green Hornet” – powered by a 50/50 blend of jet fuel and a biofuel made from camelina; Was the flight the first of a planned 15 Test Flights totaling about 23 flight-hours, scheduled for completion by mid-June 2010. [16] In March 2011, the US Air Force successfully tested a 50/50 mix of jet propellant 8 ( JP-8 ) and camelina-derived biofuel in an F-22 Raptor , achieving a speed of Mach 1.5 on 18 March 2011. [17] On September 4, 2011, the US Navy’s Blue Angelsflight demonstration squadron used at 50/50 blend of camelina biofuel and jet fuel at the Naval Air Station Patuxent River Air Expo, the first time at the military aviation unit flew on a biofuel mix. [18] In 2011, the US Navy announced plans to deploy a “Great Green Fleet,” a carrier battle grouppowered entirely by nonfossil fuels, by 2016. [19] By 2016, the US Air Force wants 50% of the fuel it consumes to be from biofuels. [20]

Continental Airlines, 50:50 blend of bio-derived “green jet” fuel and traditional jet fuel in the first demonstration of the use of sustainable biofuel to power in North America. (January 2009 ). Boeing, GE Aviation / CFM International, and Honeywell’s UOP, Boeing 737-800 equipped with CFM International CFM56-7B engines. Continental ran the blend in Engine No. 2. During the two-hour test flight, Continental pilots are flying the aircraft in a normal and non-normal flight, such as mid-flight engine shutdown and restart, and power accelerations and decelerations .KLM , the Royal Dutch Airline, is a passenger-carrying flight using biofuel. On 23 November 2009, a Boeing 747 flew, carrying a limited number of passengers, with one of its four engines running a 50/50 mix of biofuel and kerosene . [21] [22]

In June 2011, a Gulfstream G450 became the first business jet to cross the Atlantic Ocean using a blend of 50/50 biofuel developed by Honeywell derived from oil-based petroleum-based jet fuel. [23] The Dutch biofarming company Waterland International and a Japanese federation of farmers made an agreement in March 2012 to plant and grow camelina on 2000 to 3000 ha in Fukushima Prefecture . The seeds were used to produce biofuel, which could be used to produce electricity. According to director William Nolten, the region had a big potential for the production of clean energy. Some 800,000 ha in the region could be used to produce food, and after the nuclear disasterbecause of fears for contamination, the Japanese people refused to buy food produced in the region, anyway. Experiments would be able to extract radioactive cesium from the soil. An experiment with sunflowershad no success. [24]

Animal feed

Camelina has been approved as an ingredient in the US, [25] and in an ingredient (up to 10% of the ration) in broiler chicken feed [26] and laying hen feed. [27] Camelina meal, the byproduct of camelina when the oil has been extracted, has a significant crude protein content. “Feeding camelina meal significantly increased (p <0.01) omega-3 [fatty acid] concentration in both breast and thigh meat [of turkeys] compared to control group.” Medical research indicates a diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids is beneficial to human health. [28] Camelina oil has also been investigated as a viable lipid source to fully replace fish in diets Atlantic salmon ,rainbow trout , and Atlantic cod . [29] However, various antinutritional factors are present in camelina oil meal and can affect its use as livestock feed. [30] [31] The use of camelina meal for animals is only limited by the presence of glucosinolates. [32]

The Canadian Food Inspection Agency has not yet been included in the process of feeding chickens at up to 12% inclusion. [33] [34]

Use in Canada

Approximately 50,000 acres are currently cultivated in Canada. The Camelina Association of Canada projects Canada estimates that 1 to 3 million acres could be planted in the future. Several factors challenge the spread of camelina cultivation in Canada: it does not have a government classification, and camelina meal is not approved as livestock feed. In early 2010, Health Canada approved camelina oil as a food in Canada. [35]

In 2014, Canada’s Advance Payments Program (APP), known as the cash advance program. [36]


The first full genome sequence for Camelina was released on August 1, 2013, by a Canadian research team. The genome sequence and its annotation are available in a genome format and enabled for sequence searching and alignment. [37] Technical details of Camelina’s genome sequence were published on April 23, 2014 in the journal Nature Communications. [38]

In 2013 Rothamsted Research in the UK reported they had developed a genetically modified form of Camelina sativa that produced Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). [39] EPA and DHA are omega-3 fatty acids which are beneficial for cardiovascular health. These sources are limited and unsustainable. [40] [41]



Camelina is a short-season crop (85-100 days) and grows well in the climate zone in light or medium soils. Camelina is generally seeded in spring to March to May, but can also be broken down into mild climates. [42]

A seeding rate of 3-4 kg / ha is recommended, with an interval of 12 to 20 cm. [43] Seeding depth should not exceed 1 cm. With high seeding rates, these independent noncompetitive seedlings become competitive against weeds because of their density. The seedlings are early emerging and can withstand mild frosts in the spring. Minimal seedbed preparation is needed to establish camelina. [3]

Usually, camelina does not need any field interventions. However, perennial weeds can be difficult to control. Some specialized oilseed herbicides can be used on it. Also, camelina is highly resistant to black leg and Alternaria brassicae , but it can be susceptible to sclerotinia stem rot. No insect has been found to cause economic damage to camelina. [3] Camelina needs little water or nitrogen to flourish; it can be grown on marginal agricultural lands. Fertilization requirements depend on soils, but are low. It can be used as a crop rotation for other crops, to increase the health of the soil. [44] Camelina can also show some allelopathic traits, and it can be grown in mixed with cereals or vegetables. [45]

Camelina is harvested and seeded with organic farming, which makes it easy to grow crops. [46] [47]

2700 kg / ha (2400 lb / acre). [3]


North America: Blaine Creek, Suneson, Platte, Cheyenne, SO-40, SO-50, SO-60

Europe: Epona, Celine, Calena, Lindo, Madonna, Konto, D.Tagliafierro

Invasive species

C. sativa subsp. linicola is considered a weed in flax fields. In fact, attempts to separate its seed from flax seeds, with a winnowing machine, which are similar in size to flax seeds, an example of Vavilovian mimicry .

See also

  • Biofuel Aviation


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  2. ^ Jump up to:b “The biology of Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz (camelina)” . Canadian Food Inspection Agency . 2014 . Retrieved 22 August 2015 .
  3. ^ Jump up to:f D. T. Ehrensing; SO Guy (2008). “Camelina” (PDF) . Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Extension Service. EM 8953-E . Retrieved 22 August 2015 .
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  24. Jump up^ (Dutch) NRC (14 March 2012) Dutch company grows bio / diesel in Fukushima
  25. Jump up^ “FDA approves camelina as cattle feed supplement”
  26. Jump up^ “FDA approves camelina meal as broiler chicken feed (02/17/09)”
  27. Jump up^ “Camelina Meal OKd To Be Included In Laying Hen Rations”
  28. Jump up^ “Feeding Camelina SATIVA to Meat Turkeys, Western Meeting of Poultry Clinicians and Pathologists”
  29. Jump up^ Hixson, SM .; Parrish, CC .; Anderson, DM. (2014). “Use of camelina oil to replace fish oil in feeds for farmed salmonids and Atlantic cod”. Aquaculture . 431 : 44-52. doi : 10.1016 / j.aquaculture.2014.04.042 .
  30. Jump up^ Heuze V., Tran G., Lebas F., 2017. Camelina (Camelina sativa) seeds and oil meal. Feedipedia, a program by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. updated on July 17, 2017, 16:42
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  35. Jump up^ [ permanent dead link ]
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  37. Jump up^ Camelina sativa Genome Project
  38. Jump up^ “The emerging biofuel crop Camelina sativa retains a highly undifferentiated hexaploid genome structure” . Nature Communications . Retrieved 2014-04-23 .
  39. Jump up^ Ruiz-Lopez, N .; Haslam, RP; Napier, JA; Sayanova, O. (January 2014). “Successful high-level accumulation of fish oil omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in a transgenic oilseed crop” . The Plant Journal . 77 (2): 198-208. doi : 10.1111 / tpd.12378 . PMC  4253037  . PMID  24308505 .
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