Cannabis indica

Cannabis indica , Cannabis sativa forma indica , [ citation needed ] is an annual plant in the Cannabaceae family. A putative species of the genus Cannabis .


In 1785, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck published a description of a second species of Cannabis , which he named Cannabis indica . Lamarck based on the specimen collected in India. Richard Evans Schultes described C. indica as relatively short, conical, and densely branched, while C. sativa was described as tall and laxly branched. [1] Loran C. Anderson described C. indicaplants as having short, broad leaflets of those of C. sativa were characterized as relatively long and narrow. [2] [3] Cannabis indicaplants conforming to Schultes’ and Anderson’s descriptions may have originated from the Hindu Kush mountain range. Of indic of. Of. , . , . , . , . , . , . , . , .,,,,,,,,,,. quote needed ]


Broad-leafed cannabis indica plants in India, Nepal, Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Pakistan are traditionally grown for the production of charas , a form of hashish . Pharmacologically, C. indica landraces tend to A Higher-have cannabidiol (CBD) happy than C. sativa strains [4] [5] Some Commercially available indica strains-have-been selected for high levels of CBD, With Some users reporting more of a “stoned “feeling and less of a” high “from C. indica when compared to C. sativa . (The terms sativa and indica, used in this sense, are more appropriately termed “narrow-leaflet” drug type and “wide-leaflet” drug type Cannabis indica (or Cannabis sativa subsp., indica depending on the monotypic or polytipic point of view), respectively. [6] The Cannabis indica is also referred to as a “body buzz” and has beneficial properties such as pain relief in addition to being an effective treatment for insomnia and anxiolytic , as opposed to sativa “ s more common reports of a” spacey “and mental inebriation, and even, albeit rarely, comprising hallucinations . [7]Differences in the terpenoid content of the essential oil can account for some of these differences in effect. [8] [9] Common indica strains for recreational or medicinal purposes include Kush and Northern Lights .

A recent genetic analysis included both narrow-leaflet and wide-leaflet drug “biotypes” under C. indica , as well as southern and eastern Asian hemp (fiber / seed) landraces and wild Himalayan populations. [10]

Difference between C. indica and C. sativa

There are several key differences between Cannabis indica and Cannabis sativa . These include height and stature, internodal length, leaf size and structure, buds size and density, flowering time, odor, smoke and effects. [11] Indica plants tend to grow shorter and bushier than the sativa plants. Indica strains tend to have wide, and sativa strains have long leaves. The buds of indica strains tend to be wide, dense and bulky, while sativa strains are likely to be long, sausage shaped flowers. [12]

On average, Cannabis indica has higher levels of THC compared to CBD , while Cannabis sativa has lower levels of THC to CBD. [5] However, huge variability exists within either species. A 2015 study shows the average THC glad of the Most Popular herbal cannabis products in the Netherlands HAS Decreased Slightly since 2005. [13]

In the recent era of CBD, CBD strains are being developed from Indica origins that can test out as 1: 1 (CBD-THC balanced) or even as high as 22: 1 (CBD dominant). The medical interests in Cannabis are growing with increasing CBD-dominant ratios. In California, cities such as Coachella and Desert Hot Springs are re-zoning areas for cannabis cultivation. Even though Californians legalized the use of cannabis in late 2016, the LA Times, a prior to the vote, reported an entrepreneurial focus on CBD-dominant medical hemp crops, “The demand for medical products was so high, this [380,000-square-foot cultivation expansion] was just going to fill the need for that. ” [14]Low anxiety and hallucinogenic properties ( 15) make these “high-CBD strains” very desirable for chronic treatment programs.

There are three types of Cannabis : one with high levels of THC, one of which is more fibrous and has higher levels of CBD, and one which is an intermediate between the two. [5] [16]

Cannabis strains with CBD: THC ratios Above 5: 2 are Likely to be more relaxing and Produce less anxiety than vice versa. This may be due to CBD’s antagonistic effects at the cannabinoid receptors , compared to THC’s partial agonist effect. quote needed ][dubious – discuss] CBD is also a 5-HT1A receptor (serotonin) agonist, which may also contribute to an anxiolytic-content effect.[17] The effects of sativa are well known for its cerebral high. Users can expect a more vivid and uplifting high, while indica is well known for its sedative effects which some prefer for night time use. Indica possesses a more calming, soothing, and numbing experience in which can be used to relax or relieve pain. Both types are used as medical cannabis.

During the 1970s, Cannabis indica strains from Afghanistan and Hindu Kush were brought to the United States, where the first hybrids with Cannabis sativa plants were developed, widely spreading marijuana cultivation throughout the states. [18]

Plants with elevated levels of propyl cannabinoids, including tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), have been found in populations of Cannabis indica from China, India, Nepal, Thailand, Afghanistan, and Pakistan, as well as southern and western Africa. THCV levels up to 53.7% of total cannabinoids have been reported [5] [19]

The name indica originally referred to the geographical area in which the plant was grown. [20] Whether C. sativa and C. indica are distinct species is still a matter of debate. [21] However, investigation into chemotaxonomic differences supports two-species hypothesis. [5]


In 2011, a team of Canadian researchers announced that they had a genome of the Purple Kush variety of C. indica . [22]

See also

  • Cannabis sativa


  1. Jump up^ Richard Evans Schultes ; William M. Klein; Timothy Plowman & Tom E. Lockwood (1974). ” Cannabis : an example of taxonomic neglect” (PDF). Harvard University Botanical Museum Leaflets . 23 : 337-367.
  2. Jump up^ Loran C. Anderson (1980). “Leaf variation among Cannabis species from a controlled garden” . Harvard University Botanical Museum Leaflets . 28 (1): 61-69.
  3. Jump up^ Dr. Loran C. Anderson – FSU Biological Science Faculty Emeritus
  4. Jump up^ Fischedick, Justin Thomas; Hazekamp, Arno; Erkelens, Tjalling; Choi, Young Hae; Verpoorte, Rob (December 2010). “Metabolic fingerprinting of Cannabis sativa L., cannabinoids and terpenoids for chemotaxonomic and drug standardization purposes”. Phytochemistry71 (17-18): 2058–2073. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2010.10.001. PMID 21040939.
  5. ^ Jump up to:e Karl W. Hillig; Paul G. Mahlberg (2004). “A chemotaxonomic analysis of cannabinoid variation in Cannabis (Cannabaceae)”. American Journal of Botany . 91 (6): 966-975. doi : 10.3732 / ajb.91.6.966 . PMID  21653452 .
  6. Jump up^ “Sativa vs Indica.” AMSTERDAM – THE CHANNELS. Web. 05 Dec. 2010. <>.
  7. Jump up^ “Marijuana Difference Cannabis Sativa and Indica, Sativa or Indica Marijuana Seed Strains” . Amsterdam Marijuana Seeds Seed Bank.
  8. Jump up^ McPartland, JM; Russo, EB (2001). “ Cannabis and cannabis extracts: more than the sum of their parts?” Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics . 1(3/4): 103-132. doi : 10.1300 / J175v01n03_08 .
  9. Jump up^ Karl W. Hillig (2004). “A chemotaxonomic analysis of terpenoid variation in Cannabis “. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology . 32 (10): 875-891. doi : 10.1016 / j.bse.2004.04.004 .
  10. Jump up^ Karl W. Hillig (2005). “Genetic evidence for speciation in Cannabis(Cannabaceae)”. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution . 52 : 161-180. doi : 10.1007 / s10722-003-4452-y .
  11. Jump up^ “Indica vs. Sativa – Differences” . Freedom Seeds .
  12. Jump up^ Ed, Rosenthal (2010). Marijuana Grower ‘s Handbook (Ask ed.). Oakland, California: Quick American Publishing. p. 40. ISBN  978-0-932551-46-7 .
  13. Jump up^ RJ Niesink, S Rigter, Koeter MW, Brunt TM (2015). “Potency trends of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and cannabinol in cannabis in the Netherlands: 2005-15”. Addiction . 110 (12): 1941-50. doi : 10.1111 / add.13082 . PMID  26234170 .
  14. Jump up^
  15. Jump up^ Russo, Ethan B (2011-08-01). “Taming THC: synergy potential cannabis and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid surrounding effects”. British Journal of Pharmacology 163 (7): 1344-1364. doi:10.1111 / j.1476-5381.2011.01238.x. ISSN 1476-5381. PMC 3165946. PMID 21749363
  16. Jump up^ Fischedick, Justin Thomas; Hazekamp, ​​Arno; Erkelens, Tjalling; Choi, Young Hae; Verpoorte, Rob (December 2010). “Metabolic fingerprinting of cannabis indica L., cannabinoids and terpenoids for chemotaxonomic and drug standardization purposes” . Phytochemistry . 71 (17-18): 2058-2073. doi : 10.1016 / j.phytochem.2010.10.001 . PMID  21040939 . Retrieved 28 May 2015 .
  17. Jump up^ JE Joy; SJ Watson Jr .; JA Benson Jr (1999). Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing The Science Base . Washington DC: National Academy of Sciences Press . ISBN  0-585-05800-8 .
  18. Jump up^ Tom Flowers,Marijuana flower forcing, Quick American Archives, 1997, p.48
  19. Jump up^ Turner, CE, Hadley, KW, and Fetterman, P. 1973. Constituents of Sativa Cannabis L., VI: Propyl Homologues in Samples of Known Geographical Origin. J. Pharm. Sci. 62 (10): 1739-1741
  20. Jump up^ George Nakamura,FORENSIC IDENTIFICATION OF MARIJUANA: SOME QUESTIONS AND ANSWERES, Journal of Police Science and Administration, 1973, p.102-112
  21. Jump up^ Russo, EB (August 2007). “History of cannabis and its preparations in saga, science, and sobriquet”. Chemistry & Biodiversity4 (8): 1614–48. doi:10.1002/cbdv.200790144. PMID 17712811.
  22. Jump up^ Van Bakel, H .; Stout, JM; Cote, AG; Tallon, CM; Sharpe, AG; Hughes, TR; Page, JE (2011). “The draft genome and transcriptome of Cannabis sativa” . Genome Biology . 12 (10): R102. doi : 10.1186 / gb-2011-12-10-r102 . PMC  3359589  . PMID  22014239 .