Cannabis sativa

Cannabis sativa is an annual herbaceous flowering plant indigenous to eastern Asia. [1] It is placed in the Cannabis genus which belongs to a small but diverse family Cannabaceae . It has been cultivated throughout recorded history , used as a source of industrial fiber , seed oil , food , recreation , religious and spiritual moods and medicine . Each part of the plant is harvested differently, depending on the purpose of its use. The species was first classified byCarl Linnaeus in 1753. [2]

Plant physiology

Main articles: Cannabis and Cannabis cultivation

The flowers of Cannabis sativa are unisexual and are most often male or female. [3] It is a short-day flowering plant, with staminate (male) seedlings usually taller and less robust than pistillate (female) seedlings [4] The flowers of the female plant are arranged in racemes and can produce hundreds of seeds. Male seedlings shed their pollen and die several weeks prior to seedling ripening on the female seedlings. Although genetic factors has a male and female genitalia, environmental factors including the diurnal light cycle can alter sexual expression. [5]Naturally occurring monoeciousplants, with both male and female parts, are either sterile or fertile but artificially induced ” hermaphrodites ” can have fully functional reproductive organs. “Feminized” seeds are derived from artificially “hermaphrodytic” females that lack the male gene, or by treating the plants with hormones or silver thiosulfate .


ALTHOUGH the hand psychoactive form of cannabis is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the plant is Known to Contain more than 500 compounds, Among Them at least 113 cannabinoids ; however, most of these “minor” cannabinoids are only produced in trace amounts. [6] Besides THC, another cannabinoid produced in high concentrations by some plants is cannabidiol (CBD), which is not psychoactive but has been shown to block the effect of THC in the nervous system. [7] Differences in the chemical composition of Cannabis varieties can produce different effects in humans. Synthetic THC, called dronabinol, does not containCBD , CBN , or other cannabinoids, which is one reason why its pharmacological effects may differ significantly from those of natural Cannabis preparations.

Chemical constituents

Beside cannabinoids, Cannabis chemical constituents include about 120 compounds responsible for its characteristic aroma . These are mainly volatile terpenes andsesquiterpenes.

  • α- Pinene [8]
  • Myrcene [8]
  • Linalool [8]
  • Limonene [8]
  • Trans-β- ocimene [8]
  • α- Terpinolene [8]
  • Trans- caryophyllene [8]
  • α- Humulene , [8] contributes to the characteristic aroma of Cannabis sativa
  • Caryophyllene , [8] with which some hashish detection dogs are trained [9]

Difference between C. sativa and C. indica 

This procedure has been used in the past, and has had a divergent effect on THC content. [10] Some studies indicate that, on average, Cannabis sativa has higher levels of CBDcompared to THC than C. indica . [11] However, there is a large variation in the variability of the species, and there is an increasing discussion of the existing paradigm of the difference between the species and the variability found within the Cannabis genus. [12] [13] [14]There are five chemotaxonomic types of Cannabis : one with high levels of THC, one of which is more fibrous and has higher levels of CBD, and one last one with high levels of cannabigerol (CBG), and the last one almost without cannabinoids. [15]

Cannabis strains with relatively high CBD: THC ratios are less likely to induce anxiety than vice versa. [16] This may be due to CBD’s antagonistic effects at the cannabinoid receptors , compared to THC’s partial agonist effect. [17] CBD is also a 5-HT 1A receptor ( serotonin ) agonist, which can also contribute to an anxiolytic-content effect. [18] The effects of sativa are Well Known for icts cerebral high, while indica is Well Known for icts sedative effects qui Some prefer for night time use. [18]Both types are used as medical cannabis . Indica plants are normally shorter and stockier than sativas . [19] They have large, deeply serrated leaves and a compact and dense flower cluster.

Common uses

Cannabis sativa seeds can be used for cooking, lamps, lacquers or paints. They can also be used as a source of nutrients for most birds. The flowers (and to a lesser extent the leaves, stems, and seeds) Contain psychoactive chemical compounds Known As cannabinoids That Consumed are for recreational, medicinal and spiritual practical purposes. When so used, preparations of flowers ( marijuana ) and leaves and preparations derived from resinous extract (eg, hashish ) are consumed by smoking, vaporizing and oral ingestion. Historically, tinctures, teas and ointmentshave also been common preparations. In traditional medicine of India In Particular C. sativa has-been used as hallucinogenic, hypnotic, sedative , analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent. [20]


In the case of Cannabis, the process of “cloning” provides the grower with the female genetics.

cannabis plant in the vegetative growth phase of its life requires more than 12-13 hours of vegetative vegetarian life. Flowering usually occurs when darkness equals at least 12 hours a day dubious – discuss ] . The flowering cycle can last anywhere between nine and fifteen weeks, depending on the strain and environmental conditions.

In soil, the pH optimum for the plant is 6.3 to 6.8. In hydroponic growing, the nutrient solution is best at 5.2 to 5.8, making Cannabis well-suited to hydroponics because this pH range is hostile to most bacteria and fungi.


Broadly, there are three main cultivar groups of cannabis that are cultivated today:

  • Cultivars primarily cultivated for their fiber, characterized by long stems and little branching.
  • Cultivars grown for seed which can be eaten entirely from which oil is extracted.
  • Cultivars grown for medicinal or recreational purposes. A nominal if not legal distinction is often made between industrial hemp, with concentrations of psychoactive compounds far too low to be useful for that purpose, and marijuana .

See also

  • Cannabis indica
  • Cannabis ruderalis
  • Cannabis strains
  • kava


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