National Institute for Agronomic Study of the Congo

The National Institute for Agronomic Study of the Belgian Congo (French: National Institute for Agronomic Study of the Belgian Congo ( INEAC ) Dutch : Nationaal Instituut voor de Landbouwkunde in Belgisch Congo ( Nilco )) Was a research facility Established in Yangambi in the Belgian Congo , operating from 1933 to 1962.

Read moreNational Institute for Agronomic Study of the Congo

Journal of Plantation Crops

The Journal of Plantation Crops is a triannual peer-reviewed scientific journal and is the official publication of the Indian Society for Planting Crops . The scope includes topics are planting Relating to cropping systems and crops like coconut , arecanut , oil palm , cashew , spices , cocoa , coffee , tea , and rubber . The Journal of Plantation Crops was established in 1973 and the editor-in-chief is V. Krishnakumar.

Read moreJournal of Plantation Crops

Journal of Oil Palm Research

The Journal of Oil Palm Research (formerly known as Elaeis: The International Journal of Oil Palm Research and Development ) is a triannual peer-reviewed scientific paper covering research is palm oil fats, oils and oleo-chemistry. It is published by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board and the editor-in-chief is Mohd Tusirin HJ Mohd Nor ( National University of Malaysia ).

Read moreJournal of Oil Palm Research

National Institute for Agronomic Studies of the Belgian Congo

The National Institute for Agronomic Study of the Belgian Congo ( French : National Institute for Agronomic Study of the Belgian Congo , gold INEAC ) Was a research facility Established in Yangambi in the Belgian Congo , operating from the 1930s up to the country Gained independence in 1962 .

Read moreNational Institute for Agronomic Studies of the Belgian Congo

Elaeis oleifera

Elaeis oleifera is a species of palm commonly called the American oil palm . It is native to South and Central America from Honduras to northern Brazil . [2] [3] [4] [5]

Unlike its relative Elaeis guineensis , the African oil palm, it is rarely planted commercially to produce palm oil , but hybrids between the two species are, [6] mainly in efforts to provide disease resistance and to increase the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids. oil. [7]

Read moreElaeis oleifera

Elaeis guineensis

Elaeis guineensis is a species of palm commonly called African oil palm or macaw fat . [2] It is the main source of palm oil . It is native to west and southwest Africa , specifically the area between Angola and the Gambia ; the species name guineensis Refers to the name for the area, Guinea , and not the modern country qui now bears That Name. The species is also now naturalized in Madagascar , Sri Lanka , Malaysia , Indonesia, Central America , the West Indies and several islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans . The étroitement related American oil palm Elaeis oleifera and has more distantly related palm, Attalea maripa , sont également used to Produce palm oil.

Read moreElaeis guineensis

Attalea maripa

Attalea maripa , commonly called maripa palm [3] is a palm native to tropical South America and Trinidad and Tobago . It grows up to 35 m (115 ft) tall and can-have leaves or fronds 10-12 m (33-39 ft) long. This plant has a yellow edible fruit which is oblong ovoid and cream . An edible oil can be extracted from the fruit of the kernel of the seed.

Read moreAttalea maripa

Attalea (palm)

Attalea is a large genus of palms native to Mexico , the Caribbean , Central and South America . This pinnately leaved, non-spiny genus includes both small palms lacking an aboveground stem and large trees. The genus has a complicated taxonomic history, and has often been split into four or four generations. Since the genera can only be distinguished on the basis of their male flowers, the existence of intermediate flower types and the existence of hybrids between different generations has been used as an argument for keeping them all in the same genus. This has been supported by a recent molecular phylogeny.

Read moreAttalea (palm)


Elaeis (from Greek, meaning ‘oil’) is a genus of palms containing two species, called oil palms. They are used in commercial agriculture in the production of palm oil. The African oil palm Elaeis guineensis (the species name guineensis referring to its country of origin) is the principal source of palm oil. It is native to west and southwest Africa, occurring between Angola and Gambia. The American oil palm Elaeis oleifera (from Latin oleifer, meaning ‘oil-producing’)[2] is native to tropical Central and South America,[3] and is used locally for oil production.

Read moreElaeis


Cadang-cadang is a disease caused by Coconut cadang-cadang viroid (CCCVd), a lethal viroid of coconut ( Cocos nucifera ), anahaw ( Saribus rotundifolius ) buri ( Corypha utan ), and African oil palm ( Elaeis guineensis ). The name cadang-cadang comes from the word gadang-gadang that means dying in Bicol . [1] It was originally reported on San Miguel Island in the Philippines in 1927/1928. “By 1962, all but 100 of 250,000 palms on this island had died from the disease,” indicating an epidemic. [2]Every year one million coconut palms are killed by CCCVd and over 30 million coconut palms have been killed since Cadang-cadang has been discovered. CCCVd directly affects the production of copra , a raw material for coconut oil and animal feed. Total losses of about 30 million palms and annual yield losses of about 22,000 tons of copra have been attributed to Cadang-cadang disease in the Philippines. [3]

Read moreCadang-Cadang

National Cannabis Industry Association

The National Cannabis Industry Association ( NCIA ) is an American non-profit organization based in the District of Columbia, with an additional office in Denver, Colorado. NCIA is the largest cannabis trade association in the US and the only organization is state-sanctioned cannabis-related businesses at the federal level. Its mission is “to promote the growth of a responsible and legitimate cannabis industry and work for a favorable social, economic and legal environment for that industry in the United States.” [1] The organization was founded in late 2010 and has been described as the “first national trade group for the cannabis industry” in the United States. [2] [3] [4]

Read moreNational Cannabis Industry Association

Hemp Industries Association

The Hemp Industries Association ( HIA ) is a non-profit trade group Representing hemp companies, Researchers and supporters in the United States and Canada. The group petitions for fair and equal treatment of industrial hemp. Since 1992, the HIA has been dedicated to education, industry development, and the accelerated expansion of supply and demand .

Read moreHemp Industries Association

European Industrial Hemp Association

The European Industrial Hemp Association ( EIHA ) is a consortium of the hemp-processing industry. It represents the common interest of industrial hemp farmers and producers, both nationally and on a European level. EIHA is the only consortium in the industrial hemp sector. This sector includes, inter alia, the use of hemp fibers , shavings, seeds and cannabinoids . Founded as an association for the European industry, a quarter of the EIHA’s members are based in countries outside the EU . [1]

Read moreEuropean Industrial Hemp Association

The Hemp and Cannabis Foundation

The Hemp and Cannabis Foundation (THCF) was founded in 1999 [1] by Paul Stanford in Portland, Oregon . To date THCF has been helped over 250,000 patients to obtain medical advice in the field of medical marijuana where THCF has clinics. [2] THCF is the largest chain of medical marijuana clinics in the US with clinics operating in 12 states. [3]

History of THCF

THCF has produced over 800 episodes of live TV programs from the Cannabis Common Sense TV show . [4] THCF is also the main sponsor of Hempstalk in Portland, Oregon which is celebrating their 11th anniversary as a yearly dedicated festival to promoting hemp and cannabis.

In 1991, THCF began publishing an online newspaper called Hemp News, [5] which is the oldest online publication still published today. [6] Hemp News is also printed in Spanish. [7]

THCF, along with The Campaign for the Restoration and Regulation of Hemp (CHRC), Was Responsible for Placing Oregon’s Measure 80 to legalize hemp and marijuana on the ballot in 2012. Ballot Measure 80 received 47% of the Oregon vote [8] in November 2012.

In 2012, THCF helped Willie Nelson get his Oregon medical marijuana permit. THCF’s entourage provides their Oregon medical marijuana permits. [9] It was during this time that Nelson Stanford asked for the support of a proposed initiative to legalize marijuana in Oregon that was sponsored by THCF. Nelson appeared in a 30-second public service announcement in support of the Oregon Cannabis Tax Act ballot initiative. [9]

THCF’s Business

Since the year 1999, THCF has opened medical clinics in 12 states. [10] 250,000 patients have gone through medical marijuana. [11] THCF also has medical marijuana gardens in Oregon and Washington where marijuana production is legal, and the medicine from these gardens has won many awards at Cannabis Cup annual events. [1]

THCF’s Activism

On May 24, 2007 the DEA along with the Federal Government and federal prosecutor James Hagerty filed a subpoena for the medical records of 17 individuals, 14 of which were patients who had received medical marijuana permits from a THCF clinic. Eleven of the patients who were named in the subpoena were legally registered patients with the State of Oregon’s Department of Human Services medical marijuana program. The subpoena requested that the State of Oregon turn over the THCF patients’ private medical records to the government. [12] Eventually a federal judge sided with THCF and the State of Oregon and granted a motion to quash both subpoenas. “Absent a showing further Top of necessity and relevance, compliance with the subpoena Would significant impact State and medical privacyInterest and is unreasonable, “wrote Judge Robert H. Whaley of the US Eastern District Court of Washington. [12]


  1. ^ Jump up to:Dundas b , Zach (January 24, 2007). “Garden of Weedin ‘ ” . Willamette Week . Retrieved 21 September 2015 .
  2. Jump up^ Abney, Wes. “The Fighter” (September 2014). NW Leaf Magazine . Retrieved 27 September 2015 .
  3. Jump up^ KATU Communities Staff (September 19, 2012). “Salem to host cannabis tax act discussion on Sept. 28” . . Retrieved 27 September 2015 .
  4. Jump up^ King, Bonnie (January 14, 2011). “Oregon Marijuana Activists Make OCTA 2012 Official” . Salem News . Retrieved 21 September 2015 .
  5. Jump up^ “The Hemp and Cannabis Foundation (THCF)” . . . Retrieved 21 September 2015 .
  6. Jump up^ “Cannabis Expo” . Cannabis Expo . Retrieved 21 September 2015 .
  7. Jump up^ News, Hemp. “Hemp News printed in Spanish” . . Retrieved 24 January 2016 .
  8. Jump up^ Belville, Russ (October 29, 2013). “Oregon’s Inevitable Pot Legalization in 2014” . High Times . Retrieved 21 September 2015 .
  9. ^ Jump up to:b Crombie, Noelle (March 20, 2012). Willie Nelson throws his support behind proposed Oregon marijuana initiative . The Oregonian . Retrieved 21 September 2015 .
  10. Jump up^ Song, Anna (May 20, 2010). “How difficult is it to get a medical marijuana card?” . KATU News . Retrieved 21 September 2015 .
  11. Jump up^ Scott, Tristan (January 11, 2010). “Applying for relief: Missoula clinic helps patients fill out paperwork for medical marijuana” . Missoulian . Retrieved 21 September 2015 .
  12. ^ Jump up to:b Holden, Dominic (September 5, 2007). “US Court Rebukes DEA’s Attempt to Crack Medical Marijuana Records” . The Stranger . Retrieved 21 September 2015 .

Trichothecium roseum

Trichothecium roseum is a fungus in the Ascomycota firstdivisionreported in 1809. [1] It is characterized by its flat and granular colonies which are initially white and developed into light pink in color. [1] This fungus reproduces asexually through the formation of conidia with no known sexual state. [1] Trichothecium roseum is distinctive from other species of the genusTrichothecium in its characteristic zigzag patterned chained conidia. [2] It is found in various countries worldwide and can grow in a variety of habitats. [2] Trichothecium roseumA variety of secondary metabolites including mycotoxins, such as rosinotoxins and trichothecenes, which can be described as a variety of fruit crops. [1] It can be used as a pathogenic and opportunistic pathogen in the field of various diseases and their impact on the farming industry. [1] Secondary metabolites of T. roseum , specifically Trichothecinol A, are being investigated as potential anti-metastatic drugs. Several agents including harpin, silicon oxide, and sodium silicate are potential inhibitors of T. roseum growth on fruit crops. [3] [4] [5] Trichothecium roseumis a plant pathogen and has yet to show a significant impact on human health. [1]

Read moreTrichothecium roseum

Septoria cannabis

Septoria cannabis is a species of plant pathogen from the Septoria genus that causes Septoria leaf spot. Early symptoms of infection are concentrated on the vegetative leaves of cannabis plants, followed by chlorosis and necrosis of the leaf. Septoria , which is an ascomycete and pycnidia producing fungus, has been known to attack Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae species as well as many species species. This genus is known to encompass over one thousand species of pathogens, each infecting a specific and unique host.

Read moreSeptoria cannabis

Arabis mosaic virus

Arabis mosaic virus is a viral plant pathogen that is known to infect multiple hosts. The pathogen, commonly referred to as Armv, is from the Secoviridae family, and causes Raspberry yellow dwarf virus and Rhubarb mosaic virus. [1] The Arabis Mosaic virus infects multiple hosts, including strawberries, hop, hemp, grape and geraniums, raspberries, sugarbeets, celery, horseradish, lilac, peach and lettuces. [1] [2]

Read moreArabis mosaic virus

Industrial Hemp Farming Act of 2009

The Industrial Hemp Farming Act of 2009 is a bill that was introduced in the United States House of Representatives by Ron Paul ( R – Texas ) and Barney Frank ( D – Massachusetts ) on April 2, 2009. [1] Also known as HR1866, the bill clarifies the differences between marijuana and industrial hemp as well as repeals federal laws that prohibit American farmers from cultivating industrial hemp. Industrial hemp is the non- psychoactive , low- THC , oilseed and fiber varieties of thecannabis sativa plant. [2] Hemp is a sustainable resource that has been used for fuel, fabrics, paper, household products, and has been used for centuries of civilization around the world. If HR1866 passes American farmers will be allowed to compete in global hemp markets. On March 10, 2009, both Paul and Frank wrote a letter to their Congressional colleagues urging them to support the legislation. [3] [4] This bill was previously introduced in 2005 under the title of Industrial Hemp Farming Act of 2005 .

Read moreIndustrial Hemp Farming Act of 2009

Industrial Hemp Farming Act of 2005

The Industrial Hemp Farming Act of 2005 was billed as HR 3037 in the United States House of Representatives on June 22, 2005. The bill proposes “to amend the Controlled Substances Act to exclude industrial hemp from the definition of marihuana, and for other purposes “. Submitted by Ron Paul , Pete Stark , Jim McDermott and Raul Grijalva , The Committee on Energy and Commerce and the United States House Committee on the Judiciary . On July 1, 2005, Energy and Commerce referred the bill to the Subcommittee on Health. [1]

Read moreIndustrial Hemp Farming Act of 2005

Hemp juice

Hemp juice made from industrial hemp is a drug-free, non-psychoactive juice pressed from the Cannabis sativa plant. The juice is obtained through a large-scale industrial cold-pressing procedure using the upper parts of the plant as well as the leaves. This procedure clearly distinguishes hemp oil from other hemp products such as oil hemp , hemp sprouts or hemp milk, which are obtained from the seeds of green tea leaves used for the juice. The hemp juice production makes use of a valuable part of the production process. In particular, in the areas of nutrition, medicine, cosmetics, and relaxing beverages. Moreover, its full-bodied umami flavor offers the ability to enhance its specific flavor, especially sweet or savory and harmonizes tastes overall.

Read moreHemp juice

Soybean because

The soybean as , more recently Referred to as the hemp body because , Was a prototype car built with agricultural plastic. Although the formula has been used, it has been suggested that the first iteration of the body is made partially from soybeans and hemp . [2] [A] [4] The body was lighter and therefore more fuel efficient than a normal metal body. [5] It was made in Dearborn, Michigan , through the work of scientist / botanist George Washington Carver and was introduced to public view on August 13, 1941. [2]It was made, in part, as a hedge against the rationing of steel during World War II . [6] [7] It was designed to run on hemp fuel . [8]

Read moreSoybean because

Hemp oil

Hemp oil or hempseed oil is obtained by pressing hemp seeds. Cold pressed, unheated oil with a nutty flavor. The darker the color, the grassier the flavor. It should not be confused with hash oil , a tetrahydrocannabinol-containing oil made from the Cannabis flower, hailed by some [1] for its medicinal qualities. [2]

Read moreHemp oil


Oakum is a preparation of tarred fiber used to seal gaps. Its main traditional applications were in shipbuilding, for caulking or packing the joints of timbers in wooden vessels and the deckplanking of iron and steel ships; in plumbing, for sealing joints in cast iron pipe ; and in log cabins for chinking . In ship caulking, it was forced between the seams using a hammer and a caulking iron, then sealed into place with hot pitch. [1]

Read moreOakum


Maltos-Cannabis was a Swedish hemp seed- based malt beverage “food remedy” with sedative qualities being produced around the late 19th century into the early 20th century. [1] [2] The product was widely available in Sweden, Denmark, and Norway, [3] and was advertised and reviewed in American publications. An 1899 pharmaceutical reference book printed in Philadelphia defined the product: “A Swedish nutrient in form of a yellowish-white powder, possessing a taste at first salt, later sweetish, and then acrid and bitter.” [4]

Read moreMaltos-Cannabis

Hemp jewelry

Hemp jewelry uses hemp twine material which is made from the Cannabis sativa plant, which is known as “Common Hemp”, which is used to produce such food, fuel, clothing and textiles, cosmetics, paints, paper, building materials, and plastics. , among others. Some types of jewelry include bracelets, necklaces, anklets, rings, watches, masks, purses, and other adornments. The jewelry can also make use of other materials, such as glass, wood, bones, rocks, or gems.

Read moreHemp jewelry


Hempcrete or Hemplime is a bio-composite material, a mixture of hemp hurdles (shives) and lime (possibly including natural hydraulic lime , [1] sand , pozzolans ) used as a material for construction and insulation . [2] It is marketed under names like Hempcrete, Canobiota, Canosmose, and Isochanvre. [3] Hempcrete is easier to work with than traditional lime mixes and acts as an insulator and moisture regulator. It lacks the brittleness of concrete and does not need expansion joints . [3] The result is a lightweight insulating material.

Read moreHempcrete

Hemp protein

Hemp protein is the protein content of hemp seeds. The protein in hemp seeds is made up of two globulin types of proteins, edestin (60-80%) and albumin , [1] with essential amino acids. [2] [3] Hemp protein has a PDCAAS score of 0.61 (a limiting amino acid being lysine , with a digestibility of 94.9%) [4] and a biological value of 87. citation needed ] The total proportion of essential amino acidsin hemp protein isolate, is also significantly higher than that of soy protein isolate. [5]

Read moreHemp protein

Hemp hurds

Hemp hurds , also known as shives or hemp wood, are an agricultural product made from hemp . Hurds consist of “the woody inner portion of the hemp stalk, broken into pieces and separated from the fiber in the processes of breaking and scutching ” and “correspond to the shifted in flax, but are coarser and usually softer in texture”. [1]

Read moreHemp hurds

Seattle Hempfest

Seattle Hempfest is an annual event in Seattle , Washington , the World’s Largest [1] annual gathering Advocating decriminalization of marijuana . [2] Vivian McPeak serves as the organization’s executive director. Founded in 1991 as the Washington Hemp Expo , [3] [4] self-described “humble gathering of stoners ” attended by only 500 people, [4] and renamed the following year as Hempfest, [3] it has grown into a three-day annual political rally, concert, and arts and crafts fair [5]with typically over 100,000. Speakers-have included Seattle city council member Nick Licata , [4] actor / activist Woody Harrelson (2004), [4] travel writer and TV host Rick Steves (2007), (2010), [4] [6] 2012 Green Party speaker Jill Stein, Dallas Cowboys center Mark Stepnoski (2003), [4] [7] and former chief of the Norm Stamper Seattle Police Department (2006). [3] Hempfest has also been successful in recent years as Fishbone (2002), [8] TheKottonmouth Kings (2004), [9] Rehab (2006), [10] and Pato Banton (2007) [11] to its five stages [12] spread throughout Myrtle Edwards Park and Elliott Bay Park , on Seattle’s waterfront. [12] [13]

Read moreSeattle Hempfest

Portland Hempstalk Festival

Portland’s Hempstalk Festival is an annual event in Portland , Oregon advocating the decriminalization of marijuana for medicinal , industrial , and recreational use. Founded in 2005, the festival takes up Often the weekend after- Labor Day and features food vendors, live music, and information booths. The event has been waiting for you.

According to Paul Stanford, founder and director of the event:

Read morePortland Hempstalk Festival

Kyoto Hemp Forum

Kyoto Hemp Forum (also known as the Kyoto International Hemp Environmental Forum) is a hemp industry event held in Kyoto. The first event was held in July 2016. [1] Featured speakers included Japanese politicians first lady Akie Abe and the Mayor of Kyoto, Daisaku Kadokawa , US activist Chris Conrad and Dutch seed entrepreneur Ben Dronkers . [2] [3] The title of Conrad’s book Hemp: Lifeline to the Future was also the official theme of the event. [4]Exhibitors at the forum include an Australian hemp seed company whose biggest market is Japan. [5]

Read moreKyoto Hemp Forum

Charlotte’s web (cannabis)

Charlotte’s Web is a high- cannabidiol (CBD), low- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) Cannabis extract marketed as a dietary supplement under federal law of the United States. [1] [2] [3] It is produced by the Stanley brothers in Colorado. It does not induce the psychoactive ” high ” typically associated with recreational marijuana strains that are high in THC. [4] In September 2014, the Stanleys announced that they would ensure that the product is less than 0.3% THC. [5]

Read moreCharlotte’s web (cannabis)


The Hanfparade (English: Hemp Parade ) is a hemp legalization demonstration in Berlin . It has taken place every year in August since 1997.

The traditional course of the parade floats make a prelude through the German capital. In a demonstration, give Thousands hemp and cannabis Their attention. At the end of the demonstration at closing speech takes place.

Read moreHanfparade

Xuan paper

Xuan paper ( Xuanzhi simplified Chinese : 宣纸 ; traditional Chinese : 宣紙 ; pinyin : xuānzhǐ ) gold Shuen paper or rice paper , is a kind of paper Originating in ancient China used for writing and painting. Xuan paper is renowned for being soft and fine textured, suitable for conveying the artistic expression of both Chinese calligraphy and painting.

Read moreXuan paper

Weed World Candies

Weed World Candies sells lollipops . The lollipops are marketed and sold in the United States. With cannabis on the vines depicting cannabis plants next to lollipops, strong euphemism suggests a cannabis flavor or the possibility of intoxication after eating the lollipops. The candy sold by the vans contains no THC , however. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]

Read moreWeed World Candies

University of Manitoba Hemp Awareness Committee

The University of Manitoba Hemp Awareness Committee (UMHAC) was founded when? ] By Martin Moravcik, Meera Sarin, Wayne and Gil Potoroka Maguet. [1] Manitoba Hemp Alliance (MHA) lobbied government officials and organized support for hemp . The MHA also convinced the Manitoba government to allow the first scientific research in Manitoba after its 50-year ban. [2] [3]

Read moreUniversity of Manitoba Hemp Awareness Committee

Standing Silent Nation

Standing Silent Nation is a 2006 documentary film about Alex White Plume, a resident of South Dakota’s Pine Ridge Reservation. After a great deal of research, Alex and his family planted industrial hemp, under the incorrect assumption that tribal sovereignty laws would allow the production of this non-psychoactive relative of marijuana, and the film details the consequences of his actions. [1]

Read moreStanding Silent Nation


Scutching is a step in the processing of cotton or the dressing of flax or hemp in preparation for spinning . The scutching process separates the impurities from the raw material, such as the seeds from raw cotton or the straw and woody stem from flax fibers. [1] [2] scutching can be done by hand or by machines is Known As has scutcher. Hand scutching of flax with a wooden scutching knife and a small iron scraper. The end products of flax scissors are the long flax fibers, shorts coarser fibers called tow and woody waste matter called shive. [3]

Read morescutching


Sambe ( Korean : 삼베 ), or hemp fiber , is a traditional fiber for Korean clothing. The knowledge of weaving is skillfully understood, and has been deemed to be a national treasure, and has been designated as an intangible cultural asset . [1] Sambe was the primary textile fiber used in clothing for commoners prior to the introduction of cotton to Korea in the late 15th century. [2] A particularly fine variety is andongpo from Andong , North Gyeongsang Province . [2] [3] [4]

Read moreSambe


Rettig is a Process Employing the share of micro-organisms and plants is moisture to dissolve or rot away much of the cellular tissues and pectins surrounding bast-fiber bundles, and so Facilitating separation of the fiber from the stem. [1] It is used in the production of fiber from plants such as flax and hemp stalks and coir from coconut husks. [2] See also Jute .

Read moreretting

International Hemp Building Association

The International Hemp Building Association ( IHBA ) [1] is the largest association in this sector. Members and partners of the association include architects , builders , consultants, designers , the European Industrial Hemp Association (EIHA), the Hemp Industries Association and manufacturers . A non-profit association founded in 2009 by director Steve Allin author and hemp building consultant, [2] [3] the association globally promotes and supports the production of all hempand their by-products in a sustainable and bio-regional manner. [4]

Read moreInternational Hemp Building Association

Hash, Marihuana & Hemp Museum

The Hash, Marihuana & Hemp Museum is a museum located in De Wallen , Amsterdam , Netherlands . According to the museum, more than two million visitors have visited the exhibition since it opened in 1985. [1] Dedicated to cannabis and its many uses, the museum offers information about the historical and modern uses of cannabis for medicinal , spiritualand cultural practical purposes. The museum also focuses on how hempcan be used for agricultural and industrial purposes, and in the gift shop. In 2012 the museum opened in Barcelona , the Hash Marihuana Cáñamo & Hemp Museum .

Read moreHash, Marihuana & Hemp Museum

Cannabis sativa

Cannabis sativa is an annual herbaceous flowering plant indigenous to eastern Asia. [1] It is placed in the Cannabis genus which belongs to a small but diverse family Cannabaceae . It has been cultivated throughout recorded history , used as a source of industrial fiber , seed oil , food , recreation , religious and spiritual moods and medicine . Each part of the plant is harvested differently, depending on the purpose of its use. The species was first classified byCarl Linnaeus in 1753. [2]

Read moreCannabis sativa

Steve Allin

Steve Allin (born 1955) is an author, teacher and pioneer in the use of hemp in building and director of the International Hemp Building Association . [1]

Allin started using hemp and lime in a natural construction material in 1997 which was published in 2005, [2] The first published book on hemp as a building system. He has contributed to the Green Building Bible and Local Sustainable Homes and has written articles for self-build magazines, [3] Cannabis Culture , [4] Construct Ireland, Energy Blitz, [5] Hanf and New Observations Magazine. He founded the International Hemp Building Association in 2009, after hosting a symposium on the subject in Kenmare , Ireland.

Read moreSteve Allin


Hemp , or industrial hemp (from Old English hænep ), [1] typically found in the northern hemisphere , is a variety of Cannabis sativa plant species that is grown specifically for the industrial uses of its derived products. [2] It is one of the fastest growing seedlings [3] and was one of the first plants to be spun into usable fiber 10,000 years ago. [4] It can be refined into a variety of commercial items including paper, textiles , clothing, biodegradable plastics, paint, insulation, biofuel, food, and animal feed. [5]

Read moreHemp

Tetraselmis suecica

Tetraselmis suecica is a marine green alga . It grows as single, motile cells visible under light microscope up to concentrations over one million cells per milliliter. It can be grown as a foodstock in aquaculture, being able to species such as rotifers of the genus Brachionus . It is a motile chlorophyte and contains a high lipid content.

Read moreTetraselmis suecica

SERI microalgae culture collection

The SERI microalgae culture collection was a collection from the Department of Energy’s Aquatic Species Program Cataloged at the Solar Energy Research Institute located in Golden, Colorado . The Aquatic Species Program ended in 1996 after its funding was cut, to which point its microalgae collection was moved to the University of Hawaii. In 1998 the University of Hawaii, partnered with the University of California at Berkeley, received a grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF), for their proposal to develop commercial, medical, and industrial uses of microalgae, as well as more efficient techniques for cultivation. This grant was used to form Marine Bioproduct Engineering Center (MarBEC), a facility operating within the University of Hawaii at Manoa, but connected to corporate interests.

Read moreSERI microalgae culture collection

Prymnesium parvum

Prymnesium parvum is a species of haptophytes (= Prymnesiophyta). The species is of concern because of its ability to produce a toxin, prymnesin . It is a flagellated algae that is normally found suspended in the water column. It was first identified in North America in 1985 and was artificially (eg, invasive species or missed in previous surveys). Toxin production mainly kills fish and appears to have little effect on cattle or humans. This distinguishes it from red tide , which are algal bloom whose toxins lead to harmful effects in people. Although no harmful effects are known, it is recommended to consume dead or dying fish exposed to a P. parvumbloom. Prymnesium parvum of Haptophyta is sometimes termed a golden algae or a golden brown algae. Chrysophyceae of Heterokontophyta but the taxonomy of algae is under complex revision leading to contradictions in terms of non-scholarly texts such as those of state wildlife departments.

Read morePrymnesium parvum

Pleurochrysis carterae

Pleurochrysis carterae is a marine species of unicellular coccolithophorid algae that has the ability to calcify subcellularly. They produce calcified scales, known as coccoliths, which are deposited on the surface of the cell resulting in the formation of a coccosphere. Pleurochrysis carterae produce heterococcoliths which are composed of crystal units of variable shapes and sizes.

Read morePleurochrysis carterae

Phaeodactylum tricornutum

Phaeodactylum tricornutum is a diatom . It is the only species in the genus Phaeodactylum . Unlike other diatoms P. tricornutum can exist in different morphotypes ( fusiform , triradiate, and oval), and exchange in cell shape can be stimulated by environmental conditions. [1] This feature can be used to explore the molecular basis of cell shape control and morphogenesis. Unlike most diatoms P. tricornutum can grow in the absence of silicon, and it can survive without making silicified frustules. This provides opportunities for experimental exploration of silicon-based nanofabrication in diatoms.

Read morePhaeodactylum tricornutum

Neochloris oleoabundans

Neochloris oleoabundans is a microalga belonging to the class Chlorophyceae . Due to its high lipid content, it has been considered as a candidate organism for cosmetics [1] and biofuelproduction, [2] as well as feedstock for freshwater mussels . [3]

Neochloris was first isolated from a sand dune in Saudi Arabia by S. Chantanachat sometime between 1958-1962. [4]

Read moreNeochloris oleoabundans

Isochrysis galbana

Isochrysis galbana is a species of haptophytes. It is the species species of the genus Isochrysis . It is an outstanding food for various bivalve larvae. and is now widely cultured for use in the bivalve aquaculture industry. [1] This unicellular is investigated for its high amount of Fucoxanthin (18.23 mg / g dried sample). [2] The Isochrysis galbana extract is said to have some cosmetic and hair-growth properties when using hexane , ethyl acetate , ethanol , water , methanol , goldisopropanol as extractants . [3]

Read moreIsochrysis galbana

Expeller pressing

Expeller pressing (also called Expired oil pressing ) is a mechanical method for extracting oil from raw materials trademarked by Anderson International Corp. Mr. Valerius D. Anderson founded the Anderson VD Company in Cleveland, Ohio in 1888. In 1900, Mr. VD Anderson created the first successful ever-operated Expeller press. [1] The raw materials are squeezed under high pressure in a single step. When used for the extraction of food oils, nuts , seeds and algae, which are supplied to the press in a continuous feed. As the raw material is pressed, friction causes it to heat up; in the case of harder nuts, which can be found at 120 ° F (49 ° C).

Read moreExpeller pressing

Botryococcus braunii

Botryococcus braunii (Bb) is a green, pyramid-shaped planktonic microalga that is of potential importance in the field of biotechnology . Colonies held together by a lipid biofilm matrix can be found in tropical gold or oligotrophic lakes and estuaries, and will bloom when in the presence of elevated levels of inorganic dissolved phosphorus. The species is notable for its ability to produce high amounts of hydrocarbons , especially in the form of triterpenes , which are typically around 30-40% of their dry weight. [1]Compared to other green algae species it has a relatively thick cell wall that is accumulated from previous cellular divisions; making of cytoplasmic components rather difficult. Fortunately, much of the useful hydrocarbon oil is outside of the cell. [2]

Read moreBotryococcus braunii

Algal nutrient solution

Algal nutrient solutions are made of a mixture of chemical salts and water. Nutritional solutions, along with carbon dioxide and light, provide the materials needed for growing to. Nutrient solutions, as opposed to fertilizers, are designed specifically for use in aquatic environments and their composition is much more accurate.

Read moreAlgal nutrient solution

Algae fuel

Algae fuel , algal biofuel , or algal oil is an alternative to liquid fossil fuels that uses algae as its source of energy-rich oils. Also, algae fuels are an alternative to commonly known biofuel sources, such as corn and sugarcane. [1] [2] Several companies and government agencies are funding efforts to reduce capital and operating costs and make algae fuel production commercially viable. [3] Like fossil fuel, algae fuel releases CO 2 when burnt, but unlike fossil fuel, algae fuel and other biofuels only release CO 2recently removed from the atmosphere via photosynthesis as the algae or plant grew. The energy crisis and the world food crisis -have ignited interest in algaculture (farming algae) for making biodiesel and other biofuels using Unsuitable land for agriculture. Among algal fuels’ attractive characteristics are That They Can be grown with minimal impact is fresh water resources, [4] [5] Can Be Produced using saline and wastewater ,-have a high flash points , [6] and are biodegradable and Relatively harmless to the environment if spilled. [7] [8]Algae cost more per unit mass than other second-generation biofuel crops due to high capital and operating costs, [9] but is claimed to yield between 10 and 100 times more fuel per unit area. [10] The United States Department of Energy estimates that if it were algae fueled in the United States, it would require 15,000 square miles (39,000 km 2 ), which is only 0.42% of the US map, [11] or about half of the land area of Maine . This is less than 1 / 7 the area of corn harvested in the United States in 2000. [12]

Read moreAlgae fuel

Table of biofuel crop yields

The following table shows the vegetable yields of common energy crops associated with biodiesel production. This is unrelated to ethanol production , which is related to starch , sugar and cellulose content instead of oil yields.

Crop kg oil / ha / yr liters oil / ha lbs oil / acre US gal / acre
maize (corn) 147 172 129 18
cashew nut 148 176 132 19
oats 183 217 163 23
lupine (lupine) 195 232 175 25
kenaf 230 273 205 29
calendula 256 305 229 33
cotton 273 325 244 35
hemp 305 363 272 39
soybean 375 446 335 48
coffee 386 459 345 49
flax (linseed) 402 478 359 51
hazelnuts 405 482 362 51
euphorbia 440 524 393 56
pumpkin seed 449 534 401 57
coriander 450 536 402 57
mustard seed 481 572 430 61
camelina 490 583 438 62
sesame 585 696 522 74
safflower 655 779 585 83
Salesman 696 828 622 88
tung tree 790 940 705 100
sunflowers 800 952 714 102
cocoa ( cocoa ) 863 1026 771 110
peanut 890 1059 795 113
opium poppy 978 1163 873 124
rapeseed 1000 1190 893 127
olives 1019 1212 910 129
beaver beans 1188 1413 1061 151
pecan nuts 1505 1791 1344 191
jojoba 1528 1818 1365 194
jatropha 1590 1892 1420 202
macadamia nuts 1887 2246 1685 240
brazil nuts 2010 2392 1795 255
avocado 2217 2638 1980 282
coconut 2260 2689 2018 287
chinese tallow 3950 4700 3500 500
oil palm 5000 5950 4465 635
Copaifera langsdorffii [1] 12000 1283
Millettia pinnata [2] 9000
algae (open pond) [3] 80000 95000 70000 10000

– Note: Chinese Tallow ( Sapium sebiferum , or Triadica sebifera ) is also known as the “Popcorn Tree”.


  • Used with permission from the Global Petroleum Club

Sourced here [4] , published in Hill, Amanda, Al Kurki, and Mike Morris. 2006. “Biodiesel: The Sustainability Dimensions.” ATTRA Publication. Butte, MT: National Center for Appropriate Technology. Pages 4-5.

Sustainable Oils

Sustainable Oils is a Seattle-based renewable fuels company specializing in the research and production of Camelina , the only advanced biofuels feedstock with the United States Department of Agriculture , Environmental Protection Agency , and the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) regulatory approvals
[1] Oil extracted from Camelina seeds can be processed into a renewable energy jet , green diesel , biodiesel , green plastics and renewable oleochemicals . [2] The biomassthat can be used as a nutrient-rich animal feed. Camelina offers several advantages over traditional biofuel feedstocks like soy and corn , such as competitive oil yields and shorter growing seasons. [3] Sustainable Oils has its primary operations in the state of Montana..

Read moreSustainable Oils

Pongamia oil

Pongamia oil is derived from the seeds of the Millettia pinnata tree, which is native to tropical and temperate Asia . Milletia pinnata , also known as Pongamia pinnata or Pongamia glabra , is common throughout Asia, and many of them have been described in English to describe the seed oil derived from M. pinnata ; Pongamia is often used as a generic name for the tree and is derived from the genus tree. [1]

Read morePongamia oil

Millettia pinnata

Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre [2] is a species of tree in the pea family, Fabaceae , native in tropical and temperate Asia Including parts of Indian subcontinent , China , Japan , Malesia ,Australia and Pacific islands . [1] [3] [4] It is Often Known by the synonym Pongamia pinnata As It Was Moved to the genus Millettia only recently. Common names include Indian beech ,Magul karanda (මැගුල් කරන්ද in Sinhala) Pongam oiltree , karanj ( Hindi ), honge / karajata (ಹೊಂಗೆ / ಕರಜಾತ in Kannada ), pungai (புங்கை in Tamil ), kānuga (కానుగ in Telugu ), karach (করচ গাছ in Bengali ), naktamāla (नक्तमाल in Sanskrit ), Sukh Chain (سکھ چین in Urdu ).


Pongamia pinnata (L.) Stone is a vegetable tree that grows to about 15-25 meters (50-80 ft) in height with a wide canopy which spreads equally wide. It can be deciduous for short periods. It has a straight gold crooked trunk, 50-80 centimeters (20-30 in) in diameter, with gray-brown bark which is smooth or vertically fissured. Branches are glabrous with pale stipulate scars. The imparipinnate leaves of the tree alternate and are short-stalked, rounded or cuneateat the base, ovate or oblong along the length, obtuse-acuminate at the apex, and not toothed on the edges. They are a soft, shiny burgundy when young and mature to a glossy, deep green as the season progresses with prominent veins underneath. [5]

Read moreMillettia pinnata

Jatropha curcas

Jatropha curcas is a species of flowering plant in thefamily spurge , Euphorbiaceae , which is native to the American tropics , most likely Mexico and Central America . [2] It is originally native to the tropical areas of the Americas from Mexico to Argentina, and has been spread throughout the world in tropical and subtropical regions around the world , becoming naturalized or invasive in many areas. 

[3] The specific epithet , “curcas” , was first used by Portuguesedoctor Garcia de Orta more than 400 years ago. [4] Common names in English include physic nut , Barbados nut , poison nut , bubble bush or purging nut . [3] In parts of Africa and areas in Asia such as India it is also known as oil or hedge oil plant . [3]

Read moreJatropha curcas

Copaifera langsdorffii

Copaifera langsdorffii , also known as the diesel tree , is a tropical rainforest tree. It has many names in local languages, including kupa’y , cabismo , and copaúva . [1] : 5

Biological description

C. langsdorffii is a medium-sized to large tree usually reaching 12 m (39 ft) in height, with white flowers and small, oily fruits. The wood is light due to its porosity , and it is honeycombed with capillaries filled with oil. Tapping the tree Involves cutting a qui well into the oil seeps and Where It Can Be Easily file Managed. The tree does not grow well outside the tropics . [1] : 8

Read moreCopaifera langsdorffii


Copaiba is a stimulating oleoresin obtained from the trunk of several pinnate-leaved South American leguminous trees ( Genus Copaifera ). The thick, transparent exudate varies in color from light to dark brown, depending on the ratio of resin to essential oil . Copaiba is used in making varnishes and lacquers .
The balsam May be steam distilled to give copaiba oil , a colorless to light yellow liquid with the characteristic odor of the balsam and an aromatic, Slightly bitter, pungent taste. The oil Primarily Consists of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons; its main component is caryophyllene . [1]

Read moreCopaiba


The cardoon ( Cynara cardunculus ), also called the artichoke thistle is, like artichoke, a thistle in the sunflower family . It is a naturally occurring species that includes the artichoke globe, and has many cultivated forms . It is native to the western and central Mediterranean region, where it was domesticated in ancient times.


The wild cardoon is a stout herbaceous perennial plant growing 0.8 to 1.5 m (31 to 59 in) tall, with deeply lobed and heavily spined green to green-gray tomentose (hairy or downy) leaves up to 50 cm (20 in) long, with yellow spines up to 3.5 cm long The flowers are purple-purple, produced in a large, globose , massively spined capitulum up to 6 cm (2 in) in diameter. [2] [3] [4] [5]

Read morecardoon

Camelina sativa

Camelina sativa is a flowering plant in the family Brassicaceae and is usually Known in English as camelina , gold-of-pleasure , or false flax , wild flax aussi occasionally, linseed dodder, German sesame, and Siberian oilseed. It is native to Central Asian areas. This plant is cultivated as oilseed crop Mainly in Europe and in North America.


As a summer or winter annual plant , camelina grows to heights of 30-120 cm (12-47 in), with branching stems which become woody at maturity. The leaves are alternate on the stem, lanceolate with a length of 2-8 cm (0.79-3.15 in) and a width of 2-10 mm (0.079-0.394 in). Leaves and stems may be partially hairy. It blooms in the UK, between June and July. [1] Its abundant, four-petaled flowers are pale yellow in color, and cross-shaped. [1] Later, it produces a fruit which is pear shaped with a short beak. [1] The seeds are brown, [1] or orange in color and a length of 2-3 mm (0.079-0.118 in). [2]The 1,000-seed weight ranges from 0.8-2.0 g (0.028-0.071 oz). [3]

Read moreCamelina sativa


Camelina is a genus within the flowering plant family Brassicaceae . The Camelina species, commonly known as false flax, are native to Mediterranean regions of Europe and Asia . Most species of this genus have been studied with the exception of Camelina sativa , historically cultivated as oil plant . Heinrich Johann Nepomuk von Crantz was the first botanist to use the genus CamelinaIn a classification published in December 2016 , the US Navy tested a 50-50 mix of jet fuel and fuel derived from camelina seeds in 2010. [1] kerosene-based jet fuel makes it cost-prohibitive for commercial airlines to use camelina-based jet fuel. The study said that it would be necessary to have a market share of 9 percent government subsidy on camelina crop production, with 9 percent tax on the fuel oil. [2]

Read moreCamelina


Industrially, the correct term is wood dust . In everyday language, it is known as sawdust . Sawdust or wood dust is a by-product or waste product of woodworking operations such as sawing, milling, planing, routing, drilling and sanding. It is composed of fine particles of wood. 

These operations can be performed by woodworking machinery, portable power tools or by use of hand tools. Wood dust is also the byproduct of certain animals, birds and insects which live in wood, such as the woodpecker and carpenter ant . It can present a hazard in manufacturing industries, especially in terms of its flammability. Sawdust is the main component of particleboard. Wood dust is a form of particulate matter, or particulates . Research on wood dust health hazards within the field of occupational health science, and study of wood dust control within the field of indoor air quality engineering.

Read moreSawdust


Sugarcane , or sugar cane , are several species of tall perennial true fat of the genus Saccharum , tribe Andropogoneae , native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South Asiaand Melanesia , and used for sugar production. It has stout, jointed, fibrous stalks that are rich in sugar sucrose , which accumulates in the stalk internodes .

The plant is two to six meters (six to twenty feet) tall. All sugar cane species interbreed and the major commercial cultivars are complex hybrids. Sugarcane belongs to the family Poaceae , an economically important maize, including maize, wheat, rice, and sorghum , and many drilling crops.

Read moreSugarcane


Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants . It is an organic material , a natural composite of cellulosefibers that are strong in tension and embedded in a matrix of lignin that resists compression. Sometimes Wood is defined as only the secondary xylem in the stems of trees, [1] or it is defined to include more Broadly the same type of tissue elsewhere Such As in the roots of trees or shrubs. quote needed ]In a living tree it performs a support function, enabling woody plants to grow large or to stand up by themselves. It also conveys water and nutrients between the leaves , other growing tissues, and the roots. Wood can also refer to other plant materials with comparable properties, and to material engineered from wood, or wood chips or fiber.

Wood has been used for many years for fuel , as a construction material , for making tools and weapons , furniture and paper , and as a feedstock for the production of purified cellulose and its derivatives, such as cellophane and cellulose acetate .

Read moreWood


Wheat is a grass widely grown for its seed , a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food . [1] [2] [3] There are many species of wheat which together make up the genus Triticum ; the most widely grown is common wheat ( T. aestivum ).

The archaeological record suggests that wheat was first grown in the Fertile Crescent around 9600 BCE. Botanically, the wheat kernel is a type of fruit called a caryopsis .

Read moreWheat

Triadica sebifera

Triadica sebifera , Also Known As Sapium sebiferum , is Commonly Known As the Chinese tallow , [1] Chinese tallowtree , Florida aspen , chicken tree , gray popcorn tree , [2] andCandleberry tree . [3] The tree is native to eastern Asia , and is most commonly associated with eastern China , Taiwan , and Japan . In these regions, the waxy coating of the seeds is used for candle and soap making, and the leavesare used as herbal medicine to treat boils. The plant sap and leaves are reputed to be toxic, and decaying leaves from the plant are toxic to other species of plant . The specific epithets sebifera and sebiferum mean “wax-bearing” and refer to the vegetable tallow that coats the seeds.

Read moreTriadica sebifera


Stover is the leaves and stalks of field crops , such as corn ( maize ), sorghum or soybean, which are commonly left in the field after harvesting the grain . It is similar to straw , the spring left after any cereal grain or grass has been harvested at maturity for its seed. It can be directly grazed by cattle or dried for use as fodder . [1] Stover has attracted some attention to a potential fuel source, and has also produced biomass for fermentation or feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production. [2] [3]Stover from various crops can also be used in mushroom compost preparation. [4] [5]

Read moreStover

Bicolor sorghum

Sorghum bicolor , commonly called sorghum [2] ( / s ɔːr ɡ ə m / ) and Also Known As great millet , [3] durra , jowari , or milo , is a grass species cultivated for grain ict, qui is used for food for humans, animal feed, and ethanol production. Sorghum originated in northern Africa, and is now widely grown in tropical and subtropical regions. [4] Sorghum is the world’s fifth-most important cereal crop after rice , wheat ,maize , and barley . S. bicolor is typically an annual, but some cultivars are perennial. It grows in clumps that can reach over 4 m high. The grain is small, ranging from 2 to 4 mm in diameter. Sweet sorghums are sorghum cultivars that are primarily grown for foliage, syrup production, and ethanol; they are taller than those grown for grain. [5] [6]

Read moreBicolor sorghum

Short rotation forestry

Short Rotation Forestry (SRF) is grown as an energy crop for use in power stations, alone or in combination with other fuels such as coal. It is similar to historic fuelwood coppice systems.

Species used

SRF is the practice of growing fast-growing trees that reach their economically optimum size between eight and 20 years old. Species used are selected on this basis and include Alder , Ash , Southern Beech , Birch , Eucalyptus , Poplar , Willow , [1] [2] New varieties of Paulownia elongata , Paper mulberry , Australian Blackwood and Sycamore .

Read moreShort rotation forestry

Short rotation coppice

Short rotation coppice ( SRC ) is coppice grown as an energy crop . This woody solid biomass can be used in such applications as district heating, electric generating stations, or in combination with other fuels. Currently, the leading countries in the UK are Sweden [1] and the UK.

Species used

SRC uses said high yield varieties of poplar and willow . Typically willow species chosen are varieties of the Common Willow Willow Oyster , Salix viminalis . Poplar is generally planted for visual variation rather than being a commercial crop, although some varieties can be outperformed. [2]

Read moreShort rotation coppice

Salix triandra

Salix triandra , with the common names almond willow gold almond-leaved willow , is a species of willow native to Europe and Western and Central Asia . It is found from south-easternEngland east to Lake Baikal , and south to Spain and the Mediterranean east to the Caucasus , and the Alborz Mountains. It usually grows in riparian habitats , on river and stream banks, and in wetlands . [1] [2] [3]


Salix triandra is a deciduous shrub or small tree growing to 10 m (33 ft) tall, usually multistemmed, with an irregular, often leaning crown. Young bark is smooth gray-brown, becoming scaly on older stems with large scales exfoliating (like a plane tree) to leave orange-brown patches. The leaves are broad, lanceolate, 4-11 cm long and 1-3 cm wide, with a serrated margin; they are dull dark green above and green to glaucous-green below, with a 1-2-cm petiole with two conspicuous basal stipules .

Read moreSalix triandra

Salicornia bigelovii

Salicornia bigelovii is a species of flowering plant in the family known by the common names dwarf saltwort [2] and dwarf glasswort . It is native to coastal areas of the eastern and southern United States , Belize, and coastal Mexico (both the east and west coasts). [3] [4] [5] It is a plant of salt marshes , a halophyte which grows in saltwater. It is an annual herb producing an erect, branching stem which is joined to many internodes. The fleshy, green to red stem can reach about 60 cm in height. The leaves are usually small plates, peers of which are fused into a band around the stem. The inflorescence is a dense, sticklike spike of flowers. Each flower is made of a penis of sepals enclosing the stamens and stigmas , with no petals. The fruit is an utricle containing tiny, fuzzy seeds. The southern part of the species is represented by the mangrove trees of the Yucatan, where it is a subdominant plant associate in the mangroves. [6]

Read moreSalicornia bigelovii


Rapeseed ( Brassica napus ), Also Known As rape , [1] oilseed rape [1] (and, in the case of one Particular group of cultivars , canola ), is a bright-yellow flowering member of the family Brassicaceae (mustard or cabbage family), cultivated mainly for its oil-rich seed. It is the third-largest source of vegetable oil in the world. [2]

Etymology and common names

The term “rape” derives from the Latin word for turnip, rapum . [3]

Rapeseed is known by many common names in the English language. Some names-have-been applied only to some subspecies (subsp.), Forms (f.), Gold varieties (var.) Of B. napus . B. napus = B. napus subsp. napus = B. napus subsp. napus f. napus .

Read morerapeseed

Panicum virgatum

Panicum virgatum , known as switchgrass , is a perennial warm season bunchgrass native to North America, where it occurs naturally from 55 ° N latitude in Canada southwards to theUnited States and Mexico . Switchgrass is one of the dominant species of the North American tallgrass prairie and can be found in prairie grasslands , in native grass pastures , and naturalized along roadsides. It is used primarily for soil conservation ,production drilling , game cover, as anornamental grass , in phytoremediation projects, fiber, electricity, heat production, for biosequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide , and more recently for a biomass crop for ethanol and butanol .

Read morePanicum virgatum


Paulownia is a genus of six to 17 species (depending on taxonomic authority) of flowering plants in the family Paulowniaceae , related to and sometimes included in the Scrophulariaceae . They are present in much of China , south to northern Laos and Vietnam and are long cultivated elsewhere in eastern Asia , notably in Japan and Korea . They are deciduous trees 12-15 m (39-49 ft) tall, with large, heart-shaped leaves 15-40 cm across, arranged in opposite pairs on the stem. The flowersare produced in early spring on panicles 10-30 cm long, with a tubular purple corolla resembling a foxglove flower. The fruit is a dry capsule , containing thousands of minute seeds .

Read morePaulownia

Opuntia ficus-indica

Opuntia ficus-indica is a species of cactus that has long been a domesticated crop plant important in agricultural economies throughout arid and semiarid parts of the world. It is thought to have originated in Mexico. [1] Some of the common English names for the plant and its fruits are Indian fig opuntia , Barbary fig , pear cactus , spineless cacti , and prickly pear , with this common name Opuntia species. In Mexican Spanish, the plant is called nopal , while the fruit is called tuna, which are names also used in American English , especially as culinary terms.

Read moreOpuntia ficus-indica

Nicotiana glauca

Nicotiana glauca is a species of tobacco known by the common name tree tobacco . Its leaves are attached to the stalk by petioles (many other Nicotiana species-have sessile leaves) and Its leaves and stems are Neither pubescent nor sticky like Nicotiana tabacum . It Resembles Cestrum parqui purpose differs in the form of leaves and floral fusion of the outer sides. It grows to heights of more than two meters.

Read moreNicotiana glauca


Maize ( / m eɪ z / Mayz ; Zea mays subsp. Mays , from Spanish : maize After Taíno mahiz ) Also Known As corn , is a broad bean plant first domesticated by peoples indigenous in southern Mexico [1] about 10,000 years ago . The leafy stalk of the plant produces separate pollen and ovuliferous inflorescences or ears , which are fruits, yielding kernels or seeds.

Read moreMaize

Jerusalem artichoke

The Jerusalem Artichoke ( Helianthus tuberosus ), also called sunroot , sunchoke , earth apple , or Jerusalem artichoke , is a species of sunflower native to eastern North America , and found from eastern Canada and Maine west to North Dakota , and south to northern Florida and Texas . [2] It is also widely grown in the region for its tuber , which is used as a root vegetable . [3]

Read moreJerusalem artichoke

Helianthus annuus

Helianthus annuus , the common sunflower , is a broad annual forb of the genus Helianthus grown as a crop for ict edible oil and edible fruit ( sunflower seeds ). This sunflower species est used as bird food, as livestock drilling (as a meal or a silage plant), and In Some industrial applications. The plant was first domesticated in the Americas . Wild Helianthus is a widely branched annual flowering plant with many flower heads. The domestic sunflower, however, often possesses only a single large inflorescence (flower head) atop an unbranched stem. The name sunflower may be the result of the flower’s head shape, which resembles the sun, or from the impression that the blooming plant appears to slowly turn its flower towards the sun as it moves towards the sky on a daily basis.

Read moreHelianthus annuus


halophyte is a plant that grows in waters of high salinity , coming into contact with saline water through its roots or by salt spray, such as in saline semi-deserts, mangrove swamps, marshes and sloughs and seashores. The word derives from Ancient Greek ἅλας (halas) ‘salt’ and φυτόν (phyton) ‘plant’. An example of a halophyte is the salt marsh grass Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass). Relatively few plant species are halophytes-perhaps only 2% of all plant species.

Read morehalophyte


Gossypium is the cotton genus . It belongs to the tribe Gossypieae , in the mallow family, Malvaceae , native to the tropical and subtropical regions of both the Old and New World . TheGossypium genusincluded around 50 species, [2] making it the largest in the Gossypieae tribe. New species continues to be discovered. [2] The name of the genus is derived from the Arabicword goz , which refers to a soft substance. [3]

Read moreGossypium


Copra is the dried meat, or dried kernel, of the coconut used to extract coconut oil . The Earliest Evidence of the Extraction and Use of Coconut Oil in Early Tamil literature from the 1st century AD. [1] The word originated from the Tamil word kopprai . [2] [3] Coconut oil is an important agricultural commodity for many coconut-producing countries. It also yields coconut cake, which is mainly used as feed for livestock.

Read moreCopra

Cane (grass)

Cane is any of various tall, perennial grasses with flexible, woody stalks, and more specifically from the genus Arundinaria . [1]

Scientifically speaking, there are either two genera from the family Poaceae . citation needed ] The Arundo genus is native to the Mediterranean Basin to the Far East . The genus Arundinaria is a Bamboo ( Bambuseae ) found in the New World. Neither genus includes sugarcane (Saccharum genus, Andropogoneae tribe ).

Read moreCane (grass)

Babassu oil

Babassu oil or cusi oil is a clear light yellow vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of the babassu palm ( Attalea speciosa ), which grows in the Amazon region of South America . It is a non-drying oil used in food, cleaners and skin products. This oil has properties similar to coconut oil and is used in much the same context. It is being used as a substitute for coconut oil. Babassu oil is about 70% lipids, in the following proportions: [1]

Read moreBabassu oil


Arundo is a genus of stout, perennial plants in the grass family .

Arundo is native to southern Europe , North Africa , and much of Asia as far east as Japan . [3] They grow to 3-6 m tall, occasionally to 10 m, with leaves 30-60 cm long and 3-6 cm broad.

Read moreArundo

2007-08 world food price crisis

World food prices increased dramatically in 2007 and the first and second quarter of 2008, [1] creating a global crisis and political and economic instability and social unrest in both poor and developed nations . Although the media spotlight focused on the riots that ensued in the face of high prices, the ongoing crisis of food insecurity had been years in the making. [2] [3] Systemic causes for the world continues to be the subject of debate. After peaking in the second quarter of 2008, prices fell dramatically during the late-2000s recession2009, World Food Price Crisis ( 2009-12 World Food Price Crisis ), a new level in the world of food and nutrition . [1] [4] Over the next years, prices fell , reaching a low in March 2016 with the deflated FAO food price index close to pre-crisis level of 2006. [5]

Read more2007-08 world food price crisis