Tetraselmis suecica

Tetraselmis suecica is a marine green alga . It grows as single, motile cells visible under light microscope up to concentrations over one million cells per milliliter. It can be grown as a foodstock in aquaculture, being able to species such as rotifers of the genus Brachionus . It is a motile chlorophyte and contains a high lipid content.

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SERI microalgae culture collection

The SERI microalgae culture collection was a collection from the Department of Energy’s Aquatic Species Program Cataloged at the Solar Energy Research Institute located in Golden, Colorado . The Aquatic Species Program ended in 1996 after its funding was cut, to which point its microalgae collection was moved to the University of Hawaii. In 1998 the University of Hawaii, partnered with the University of California at Berkeley, received a grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF), for their proposal to develop commercial, medical, and industrial uses of microalgae, as well as more efficient techniques for cultivation. This grant was used to form Marine Bioproduct Engineering Center (MarBEC), a facility operating within the University of Hawaii at Manoa, but connected to corporate interests.

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Prymnesium parvum

Prymnesium parvum is a species of haptophytes (= Prymnesiophyta). The species is of concern because of its ability to produce a toxin, prymnesin . It is a flagellated algae that is normally found suspended in the water column. It was first identified in North America in 1985 and was artificially (eg, invasive species or missed in previous surveys). Toxin production mainly kills fish and appears to have little effect on cattle or humans. This distinguishes it from red tide , which are algal bloom whose toxins lead to harmful effects in people. Although no harmful effects are known, it is recommended to consume dead or dying fish exposed to a P. parvumbloom. Prymnesium parvum of Haptophyta is sometimes termed a golden algae or a golden brown algae. Chrysophyceae of Heterokontophyta but the taxonomy of algae is under complex revision leading to contradictions in terms of non-scholarly texts such as those of state wildlife departments.

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Pleurochrysis carterae

Pleurochrysis carterae is a marine species of unicellular coccolithophorid algae that has the ability to calcify subcellularly. They produce calcified scales, known as coccoliths, which are deposited on the surface of the cell resulting in the formation of a coccosphere. Pleurochrysis carterae produce heterococcoliths which are composed of crystal units of variable shapes and sizes.

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Phaeodactylum tricornutum

Phaeodactylum tricornutum is a diatom . It is the only species in the genus Phaeodactylum . Unlike other diatoms P. tricornutum can exist in different morphotypes ( fusiform , triradiate, and oval), and exchange in cell shape can be stimulated by environmental conditions. [1] This feature can be used to explore the molecular basis of cell shape control and morphogenesis. Unlike most diatoms P. tricornutum can grow in the absence of silicon, and it can survive without making silicified frustules. This provides opportunities for experimental exploration of silicon-based nanofabrication in diatoms.

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Neochloris oleoabundans

Neochloris oleoabundans is a microalga belonging to the class Chlorophyceae . Due to its high lipid content, it has been considered as a candidate organism for cosmetics [1] and biofuelproduction, [2] as well as feedstock for freshwater mussels . [3]

Neochloris was first isolated from a sand dune in Saudi Arabia by S. Chantanachat sometime between 1958-1962. [4]

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Isochrysis galbana

Isochrysis galbana is a species of haptophytes. It is the species species of the genus Isochrysis . It is an outstanding food for various bivalve larvae. and is now widely cultured for use in the bivalve aquaculture industry. [1] This unicellular is investigated for its high amount of Fucoxanthin (18.23 mg / g dried sample). [2] The Isochrysis galbana extract is said to have some cosmetic and hair-growth properties when using hexane , ethyl acetate , ethanol , water , methanol , goldisopropanol as extractants . [3]

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Expeller pressing

Expeller pressing (also called Expired oil pressing ) is a mechanical method for extracting oil from raw materials trademarked by Anderson International Corp. Mr. Valerius D. Anderson founded the Anderson VD Company in Cleveland, Ohio in 1888. In 1900, Mr. VD Anderson created the first successful ever-operated Expeller press. [1] The raw materials are squeezed under high pressure in a single step. When used for the extraction of food oils, nuts , seeds and algae, which are supplied to the press in a continuous feed. As the raw material is pressed, friction causes it to heat up; in the case of harder nuts, which can be found at 120 ° F (49 ° C).

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Botryococcus braunii

Botryococcus braunii (Bb) is a green, pyramid-shaped planktonic microalga that is of potential importance in the field of biotechnology . Colonies held together by a lipid biofilm matrix can be found in tropical gold or oligotrophic lakes and estuaries, and will bloom when in the presence of elevated levels of inorganic dissolved phosphorus. The species is notable for its ability to produce high amounts of hydrocarbons , especially in the form of triterpenes , which are typically around 30-40% of their dry weight. [1]Compared to other green algae species it has a relatively thick cell wall that is accumulated from previous cellular divisions; making of cytoplasmic components rather difficult. Fortunately, much of the useful hydrocarbon oil is outside of the cell. [2]

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Algal nutrient solution

Algal nutrient solutions are made of a mixture of chemical salts and water. Nutritional solutions, along with carbon dioxide and light, provide the materials needed for growing to. Nutrient solutions, as opposed to fertilizers, are designed specifically for use in aquatic environments and their composition is much more accurate.

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Algae fuel

Algae fuel , algal biofuel , or algal oil is an alternative to liquid fossil fuels that uses algae as its source of energy-rich oils. Also, algae fuels are an alternative to commonly known biofuel sources, such as corn and sugarcane. [1] [2] Several companies and government agencies are funding efforts to reduce capital and operating costs and make algae fuel production commercially viable. [3] Like fossil fuel, algae fuel releases CO 2 when burnt, but unlike fossil fuel, algae fuel and other biofuels only release CO 2recently removed from the atmosphere via photosynthesis as the algae or plant grew. The energy crisis and the world food crisis -have ignited interest in algaculture (farming algae) for making biodiesel and other biofuels using Unsuitable land for agriculture. Among algal fuels’ attractive characteristics are That They Can be grown with minimal impact is fresh water resources, [4] [5] Can Be Produced using saline and wastewater ,-have a high flash points , [6] and are biodegradable and Relatively harmless to the environment if spilled. [7] [8]Algae cost more per unit mass than other second-generation biofuel crops due to high capital and operating costs, [9] but is claimed to yield between 10 and 100 times more fuel per unit area. [10] The United States Department of Energy estimates that if it were algae fueled in the United States, it would require 15,000 square miles (39,000 km 2 ), which is only 0.42% of the US map, [11] or about half of the land area of Maine . This is less than 1 / 7 the area of corn harvested in the United States in 2000. [12]

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Table of biofuel crop yields

The following table shows the vegetable yields of common energy crops associated with biodiesel production. This is unrelated to ethanol production , which is related to starch , sugar and cellulose content instead of oil yields.

Crop kg oil / ha / yr liters oil / ha lbs oil / acre US gal / acre
maize (corn) 147 172 129 18
cashew nut 148 176 132 19
oats 183 217 163 23
lupine (lupine) 195 232 175 25
kenaf 230 273 205 29
calendula 256 305 229 33
cotton 273 325 244 35
hemp 305 363 272 39
soybean 375 446 335 48
coffee 386 459 345 49
flax (linseed) 402 478 359 51
hazelnuts 405 482 362 51
euphorbia 440 524 393 56
pumpkin seed 449 534 401 57
coriander 450 536 402 57
mustard seed 481 572 430 61
camelina 490 583 438 62
sesame 585 696 522 74
safflower 655 779 585 83
Salesman 696 828 622 88
tung tree 790 940 705 100
sunflowers 800 952 714 102
cocoa ( cocoa ) 863 1026 771 110
peanut 890 1059 795 113
opium poppy 978 1163 873 124
rapeseed 1000 1190 893 127
olives 1019 1212 910 129
beaver beans 1188 1413 1061 151
pecan nuts 1505 1791 1344 191
jojoba 1528 1818 1365 194
jatropha 1590 1892 1420 202
macadamia nuts 1887 2246 1685 240
brazil nuts 2010 2392 1795 255
avocado 2217 2638 1980 282
coconut 2260 2689 2018 287
chinese tallow 3950 4700 3500 500
oil palm 5000 5950 4465 635
Copaifera langsdorffii [1] 12000 1283
Millettia pinnata [2] 9000
algae (open pond) [3] 80000 95000 70000 10000

– Note: Chinese Tallow ( Sapium sebiferum , or Triadica sebifera ) is also known as the “Popcorn Tree”.


  • Used with permission from the Global Petroleum Club

Sourced here [4] , published in Hill, Amanda, Al Kurki, and Mike Morris. 2006. “Biodiesel: The Sustainability Dimensions.” ATTRA Publication. Butte, MT: National Center for Appropriate Technology. Pages 4-5.

Sustainable Oils

Sustainable Oils is a Seattle-based renewable fuels company specializing in the research and production of Camelina , the only advanced biofuels feedstock with the United States Department of Agriculture , Environmental Protection Agency , and the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) regulatory approvals
[1] Oil extracted from Camelina seeds can be processed into a renewable energy jet , green diesel , biodiesel , green plastics and renewable oleochemicals . [2] The biomassthat can be used as a nutrient-rich animal feed. Camelina offers several advantages over traditional biofuel feedstocks like soy and corn , such as competitive oil yields and shorter growing seasons. [3] Sustainable Oils has its primary operations in the state of Montana..

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Pongamia oil

Pongamia oil is derived from the seeds of the Millettia pinnata tree, which is native to tropical and temperate Asia . Milletia pinnata , also known as Pongamia pinnata or Pongamia glabra , is common throughout Asia, and many of them have been described in English to describe the seed oil derived from M. pinnata ; Pongamia is often used as a generic name for the tree and is derived from the genus tree. [1]

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Millettia pinnata

Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre [2] is a species of tree in the pea family, Fabaceae , native in tropical and temperate Asia Including parts of Indian subcontinent , China , Japan , Malesia ,Australia and Pacific islands . [1] [3] [4] It is Often Known by the synonym Pongamia pinnata As It Was Moved to the genus Millettia only recently. Common names include Indian beech ,Magul karanda (මැගුල් කරන්ද in Sinhala) Pongam oiltree , karanj ( Hindi ), honge / karajata (ಹೊಂಗೆ / ಕರಜಾತ in Kannada ), pungai (புங்கை in Tamil ), kānuga (కానుగ in Telugu ), karach (করচ গাছ in Bengali ), naktamāla (नक्तमाल in Sanskrit ), Sukh Chain (سکھ چین in Urdu ).


Pongamia pinnata (L.) Stone is a vegetable tree that grows to about 15-25 meters (50-80 ft) in height with a wide canopy which spreads equally wide. It can be deciduous for short periods. It has a straight gold crooked trunk, 50-80 centimeters (20-30 in) in diameter, with gray-brown bark which is smooth or vertically fissured. Branches are glabrous with pale stipulate scars. The imparipinnate leaves of the tree alternate and are short-stalked, rounded or cuneateat the base, ovate or oblong along the length, obtuse-acuminate at the apex, and not toothed on the edges. They are a soft, shiny burgundy when young and mature to a glossy, deep green as the season progresses with prominent veins underneath. [5]

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Jatropha curcas

Jatropha curcas is a species of flowering plant in thefamily spurge , Euphorbiaceae , which is native to the American tropics , most likely Mexico and Central America . [2] It is originally native to the tropical areas of the Americas from Mexico to Argentina, and has been spread throughout the world in tropical and subtropical regions around the world , becoming naturalized or invasive in many areas. 

[3] The specific epithet , “curcas” , was first used by Portuguesedoctor Garcia de Orta more than 400 years ago. [4] Common names in English include physic nut , Barbados nut , poison nut , bubble bush or purging nut . [3] In parts of Africa and areas in Asia such as India it is also known as oil or hedge oil plant . [3]

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Copaifera langsdorffii

Copaifera langsdorffii , also known as the diesel tree , is a tropical rainforest tree. It has many names in local languages, including kupa’y , cabismo , and copaúva . [1] : 5

Biological description

C. langsdorffii is a medium-sized to large tree usually reaching 12 m (39 ft) in height, with white flowers and small, oily fruits. The wood is light due to its porosity , and it is honeycombed with capillaries filled with oil. Tapping the tree Involves cutting a qui well into the oil seeps and Where It Can Be Easily file Managed. The tree does not grow well outside the tropics . [1] : 8

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Copaiba is a stimulating oleoresin obtained from the trunk of several pinnate-leaved South American leguminous trees ( Genus Copaifera ). The thick, transparent exudate varies in color from light to dark brown, depending on the ratio of resin to essential oil . Copaiba is used in making varnishes and lacquers .
The balsam May be steam distilled to give copaiba oil , a colorless to light yellow liquid with the characteristic odor of the balsam and an aromatic, Slightly bitter, pungent taste. The oil Primarily Consists of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons; its main component is caryophyllene . [1]

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The cardoon ( Cynara cardunculus ), also called the artichoke thistle is, like artichoke, a thistle in the sunflower family . It is a naturally occurring species that includes the artichoke globe, and has many cultivated forms . It is native to the western and central Mediterranean region, where it was domesticated in ancient times.


The wild cardoon is a stout herbaceous perennial plant growing 0.8 to 1.5 m (31 to 59 in) tall, with deeply lobed and heavily spined green to green-gray tomentose (hairy or downy) leaves up to 50 cm (20 in) long, with yellow spines up to 3.5 cm long The flowers are purple-purple, produced in a large, globose , massively spined capitulum up to 6 cm (2 in) in diameter. [2] [3] [4] [5]

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Camelina sativa

Camelina sativa is a flowering plant in the family Brassicaceae and is usually Known in English as camelina , gold-of-pleasure , or false flax , wild flax aussi occasionally, linseed dodder, German sesame, and Siberian oilseed. It is native to Central Asian areas. This plant is cultivated as oilseed crop Mainly in Europe and in North America.


As a summer or winter annual plant , camelina grows to heights of 30-120 cm (12-47 in), with branching stems which become woody at maturity. The leaves are alternate on the stem, lanceolate with a length of 2-8 cm (0.79-3.15 in) and a width of 2-10 mm (0.079-0.394 in). Leaves and stems may be partially hairy. It blooms in the UK, between June and July. [1] Its abundant, four-petaled flowers are pale yellow in color, and cross-shaped. [1] Later, it produces a fruit which is pear shaped with a short beak. [1] The seeds are brown, [1] or orange in color and a length of 2-3 mm (0.079-0.118 in). [2]The 1,000-seed weight ranges from 0.8-2.0 g (0.028-0.071 oz). [3]

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Camelina is a genus within the flowering plant family Brassicaceae . The Camelina species, commonly known as false flax, are native to Mediterranean regions of Europe and Asia . Most species of this genus have been studied with the exception of Camelina sativa , historically cultivated as oil plant . Heinrich Johann Nepomuk von Crantz was the first botanist to use the genus CamelinaIn a classification published in December 2016 , the US Navy tested a 50-50 mix of jet fuel and fuel derived from camelina seeds in 2010. [1] kerosene-based jet fuel makes it cost-prohibitive for commercial airlines to use camelina-based jet fuel. The study said that it would be necessary to have a market share of 9 percent government subsidy on camelina crop production, with 9 percent tax on the fuel oil. [2]

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