Copra is the dried meat, or dried kernel, of the coconut used to extract coconut oil . The Earliest Evidence of the Extraction and Use of Coconut Oil in Early Tamil literature from the 1st century AD. [1] The word originated from the Tamil word kopprai . [2] [3] Coconut oil is an important agricultural commodity for many coconut-producing countries. It also yields coconut cake, which is mainly used as feed for livestock.


Coconut oil has been extracted and grounded to extract coconut oil . It was used by Pacific island cultures and became a commercial product for merchants in South Seas and South Asia in the 1860s. This 19th-century copra trading inspired Robert Louis Stevenson’s 1893 novella The Beach of Falesá , based on his experiences in Samoa . [4] Nowadays, the process of coconut oil extraction is carried out by crushing copra to produce coconut oil (70%); the by-product is known as copra cake or copra meal (30%).

Once the oil is extracted, the remaining coconut cake is 18-25% protein but contains much dietary fiber it can not be eaten in large quantities by humans. Instead, it is only fed to ruminants . [5]

The production of copra – removing the shell, breaking it up, drying – is usually done where the coconut palms grow. Can be made by smoke drying, sun drying, or kilndrying. Hybrid solar drying system is also used to make drying processes continuously. In hybrid solar drying system, solar energy is used during daylight and energy from burning biomass is used when sunlight is not sufficient or during night. [6] Sun drying requires more than racks and sufficient sunlight. Halved nuts are drained of water, and left with the meat facing the sky; they can be washed to remove mold-creating contaminants. After two days the meat can be removed from the shell with ease, and the drying process is complete (up to seven in total). Sun drying is often combined with kiln drying, which can be reduced to a greater or lesser extent. This process can also be reversed by copying the kiln and finishing the process with sunlight. There are advantages and disadvantages in both – starting with sun drying and taking care of the environment. In India, small but whole coconuts can be dried over the course of eight months to a year, and the meat is removed and sold as a whole ball. Meat prepared in this fashion is sweet, soft, oily and is cream-colored instead of being white. Coconut meat can be dried using direct heat and smoke from a fire, using simple racks to suspend the coconut over the fire. The smoke residue can help the half-dried meat but the process suffers from unpredictable results and the risk of fires.[7]

While there are some large plantations with integrated operations, copra remains primarily a smallholder crop. The major producing country is the Philippines . citation needed ] It is also a major export. In form copra years Was the file Managed by traders going from island to island and harbor to harbor in the Pacific Ocean aim South Pacific Production is now much diminished, with the exception of Papua New Guinea , the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu . quote needed ]

Copra production begins on coconut plantations. Coconut trees are generally spaced 9 m (30 ft) apart, allowing a density of 100-160 coconut trees per hectare. A standard tree bears around 50-80 nuts a year, and average earnings in Vanuatu (1999) were US $ 0.20 per kg (one kg equals 8 nuts) -so a farmer could earn approximately US $ 120 to US $ 320 per hectare for each planted hectare . Copra has been more than doubled in price, and was last quoted at US $ 540 per ton in the Philippines on CIF Rotterdam basis (US $ 0.54 per kg) by the Financial Times on 9 November 2012.

In India, Tiptur in Tumkur district in Karnataka is notable for its copra. citation needed ] Copra is here for you.

The largest source of copra is from the Philippines, where the value of annual production exceeds US $ 80 million. citation needed ] A copra, which is a vital part of their income. Unfortunately, it is highly susceptible to the growth of aflatoxin if not dried properly. Aflatoxins can be highly toxic, and are among the most potent known carcinogens , citation needed ] particularly affecting the liver. Aflatoxins in copra cake, fed to animals, can be passed on in milk or meat, leading to human illnesses. quote needed ]

In the Philippines, they are collected as dried “cups” (the meat of one-half of a coconut), which are shipped in large burlap bags. At the shipping point (typically, a dock), the film is in the bag at multiple points, thus perforating the cups and collecting small amounts of copra within the tubes. Those samples are measured for aflatoxin contamination. If within the standard the bag is shipped. quote needed ]This method leaves the risk that many cups are missed by the random sampling and seriously contaminated copra might be missed. Because so many small producers are involved, it is impractical to monitor all the farms and drying sites (which is where aflatoxin contamination occurs). The Philippine government continues to work on developing methods for testing, safety, and minimization of aflatoxins. quote needed ]

Animal feed

Copra meal is used as fodder for horses and cattle. Its high oil and protein levels are fattening for stock. [8] [9] [7] [9] The protein in a high protein source for cattle and sheep, because it does not break down in the rumen .

Coconut oil can be extracted using either mechanical expellers or solvents ( hexane ). Mechanically expelled copra meal is of higher feeding value, because it contains typically 8-12% oil, while the solvent-extracted copra meal contains only 2-4% oil. Premium quality can also contain 20-22% crude protein, and <20ppb aflatoxin . [10]

High-quality copra meal contains <12% non-structural carbohydrate (NSC), [11] which makes it more prone to ulcer , insulin resistance, colic , tying up , and acidosis . [12]


Copra has been classed with dangerous goods due to its spontaneously combustive nature. [13] It is identified as a Division 4.2 substance. It has been forbidden by ICAO from the express written permission of a state authorized agency.

See also

  • Copra


  1. Jump up^ “Archived copy” . Archived from the original on 2014-01-03 . Retrieved 2014-01-03 .
  2. Jump up^ “copra – definition of copra in English – Oxford Dictionaries” .
  3. Jump up^, a commodity of Kerala
  4. Jump up^ Holmes, LD (2001). Treasured Islands: Cruising the South Seas with Robert Louis Stevenson . Sheridan House. ISBN  1-57409-130-1 .
  5. Jump up^ Grimwood, BE; Ashman, F; Dendy, DAV; Jarman, CG; Little, ECS; Timmins, WH (1975). Coconut Palm Products – Their processing in developing countries . Rome: FAO. p. 193. ISBN  978-92-5-100853-9 .
  6. Jump up^ “Hybrid Solar Dryer for Copra” . Copra Indonesia .
  7. Jump up^ Grimwood et al., 1975, p. 49-56.
  8. Jump up^ “Cocos nucifera” . . Retrieved 2012-11-28 .
  9. Jump up^ “AFRIS – Animal feed Resources Information System” . . Retrieved 2012-11-28 .
  10. Jump up^ “Nutrient Specs – Equine Stance” . Archived from the original on 2011-07-06 . Retrieved 2012-11-28 .
  11. Jump up^ [1] ArchivedOctober 26, 2009, at theWayback Machine.
  12. Jump up^ “CoolStance Benefits – Stance Equine” . Archived from the original on 2011-07-06 . Retrieved 2012-11-28 .
  13. Jump up^ “Copra” . . Retrieved 2012-11-28 .