Dry animal dung fuel

Dry animal dung fuel (or dry manure fuel ) is an animal feces that has been dried in order to be used as a fuel source. It is used as a fuel in many countries around the world. Using dry manure as a fuel source is an example of reuse of excreta . A disadvantage of using this kind of fuel is increased air pollution. [1]

Dry dung and moist dung

Dry dung is more often used than moist dung, because it burns more easily. Dry manure is typically defined as having a moisture content less than 30 percent. [2]


The benefits of using dry pet dung include: [3]

  • Cheaper than most modern fuels
  • efficient
  • Alleviates local pressure on wood resources
  • Readily available – short walking
  • No cash outlays necessary for purchase (can be exchanged for other products)
  • Less environmental pollution
  • Safer disposal of animal dung
  • Sustainable and renewable energy source



  • In Egypt dry animal dung (from cows & buffaloes) is mixed with straw or crop residues to make dry fuel called “Gella” or “Jilla” dung cakes in modern times and “” khoroshtof “” in medieval times. [4] Ancient Egyptians used the dry animal dung as a source of fuel. [5] Dung cakes and building crop residues were the source of 76.4% of gross energy consumed in Egypt’s rural areas during the 1980s. [6] Temperatures of dung-fueled fires in an experiment on Egyptian village-made dung cake fuel produced
Maximum of 640 degrees C in 12 minutes, falling to 240 degrees C after 25 minutes and 100 degrees C after 46 minutes. These temperatures have been obtained without refueling and without bellows etc. “” [7]

Also, camel dung is used as fuel in Egypt.

  • Lisu is the cakes of dry cow dung fuel in Lesotho (see photo)
  • Mali


  • china
  • Nepal [8]
  • Mongolia dry camel and dung cakes are commonly used as fuel in the Gobi region.
  • Iran since prehistoric time to modern eras [9]
  • In India dry buffalo dung is used as fuel and it is sometimes used in some areas in India. Cow dung is known as “” Gomaya “” or “” Komaya “” in India. Dry animal dung cakes are called Upla in Hindi. [10]
  • In Pakistan cow / buffalo dung is used as fuel. [7]
  • Bangladesh dry cow dung fuel is called Ghunte.
  • afghanistan
  • Kyrgyz Republic Dung is used in specially designed home stoves, which wind to the outside


  • Russians dry animal dung is known as “” Kiziak “” which is made by collecting dried animal dung on the steppe, wetting it in water then mixing it with straw then making it in which they were then dried in the sun. It was used as a source of fuel for the winter, throughout the summer. [11]
  • France in the Marais Poitevin in Coulon There is a demonstration of traditional use of dry fuel.

The Americas

  • Early European settlers on the Great Plains of the United States used to dry buffalo manure as a fuel. They called it buffalo chips.
  • American officials in Texas are studying using dry cow dung as a fuel
  • Pueblo Indians used dry pet dung as a fuel
  • In Peru , the Yavari steam ship was fueled by Lama dung fuel for several decades.
  • Dry dung can be used in the production of celluloid for film.

Human feces

They can be used as a source of food if they are collected in a type of dry toilet , for example an incinerating toilet . Since 2011, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is supporting the development of such toilets as part of their “Reinvent the Toilet Challenge” to promote safer, more effective ways to treat human excreta . [12] The omni-processor is another example of a human feces in a sludge or sludge .


Dry animal dung was used from prehistoric times, [13] including Ancient Persia [9] and Ancient Egypt. In Equatorial Guinea archaeological evidence has been found [14] and biblical records indicate animal and human dung were used as fuel. [15]

See also

  • Dung cakes
  • Cook stove


  1. Jump up^ Mudway, Ian S; Duggan, Sean T; Venkataraman, Chandra; Habib, Gazala; Kelly, Frank J; Grigg, Jonathan (2005). “Combustion of dried animal as biofuel results in the generation of highly active redox fine particles”. Particle and Fiber Toxicology . 2 (1): 6. doi : 10.1186 / 1743-8977-2-6 . ISSN  1743-8977 .
  2. Jump up^ “Biomass Report, Yakima County Public Works Solid Waste Division” (PDF) . Retrieved 2012-10-11 .
  3. Jump up^ “Pyrolysis Processing of Animal Manure to Produce Fuel Gases” (PDF) . Retrieved 2012-10-11 .
  4. Jump up^ “Egyptian cities and markets: What’s behind a name? – Street Smart – Folk – Ahram Online” . English.ahram.org.eg. 2012-06-28 . Retrieved 2012-10-11 .
  5. Jump up^ “Al-Ahram Weekly | Chronicles |” . Weekly.ahram.org.eg. Archived from the original on 2011-12-17 . Retrieved 2012-10-11 .
  6. Jump up^ “Biogas Technology Transfer To Rural Communities In Egypt” (PDF) . Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-11-23 . Retrieved 2012-10-11 .
  7. ^ Jump up to:b “Dung & Archeology” . Sas.upenn.edu . Retrieved 2012-10-11 .
  8. Jump up^ “Health Costs of Dung-Cake Fuel Use by the Poor in Rural Nepal” (PDF) . Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-07-14 . Retrieved 2012-10-11 .
  9. ^ Jump up to:b Miller, Naomi (1984-01-01). “The use of dung as fuel: an ethnographic example and an archaeological application | Naomi Miller” . Academia.edu . Retrieved 2012-10-11 .
  10. Jump up^ “Animal Dung As A Source Of Energy In Remote Areas Of Indian Himalayas” (PDF) . Retrieved 2012-10-11 .
  11. Jump up^ “Polish settlements in Russia during WW II” . Polishresettlementcampsintheuk.co.uk. 1936-09-19 . Retrieved 2012-10-11 .
  12. Jump up^ Elisabeth von Muench, Dorothee Spuhler, Trevor Surridge, Nelson Ekane, Kim Andersson, Emine Goekce Fidan, Arno Rosemarin (2013)Sustainable Sanitation Alliance members, a closer look at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation’s sanitation grants, Sustainable Sanitation Practice Journal , Issue 17, p. 4-10
  13. Jump up^ Mlekuž, Dimitrij (2009). “The materiality of dung: the manipulation of dung in Neolithic Mediterranean caves”. Documenta Praehistorica . 36 (0): 219. doi : 10.4312 / dp.36.14 . ISSN  1854-2492 .
  14. Jump up^ Picornell Gelabert, Llorenç; Asouti, Eleni; Martí, Ethel Allué (2011). “The ethnoarchaeology of firewood management in the Fang villages of Equatorial Guinea, central Africa: Implications for the interpretation of wood fuel remains of archaeological sites”. Journal of Anthropological Archeology . 30 (3): 375-384. doi : 10.1016 / j.jaa.2011.05.002 . ISSN  0278-4165 .
  15. Jump up^ The Bible Ezekiel 4:12 And you’ll eat it as it’s barley cakes, and you’ll bake it with dung that comes out of man. http://bibleapps.com/ezekiel/4-12.htm