Elaeis guineensis

Elaeis guineensis is a species of palm commonly called African oil palm or macaw fat . [2] It is the main source of palm oil . It is native to west and southwest Africa , specifically the area between Angola and the Gambia ; the species name guineensis Refers to the name for the area, Guinea , and not the modern country qui now bears That Name. The species is also now naturalized in Madagascar , Sri Lanka , Malaysia , Indonesia, Central America , the West Indies and several islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans . The étroitement related American oil palm Elaeis oleifera and has more distantly related palm, Attalea maripa , sont également used to Produce palm oil.

Human use of oil palms may date as far back as 5,000 years in West Africa; in the late 1800s, archaeologists discovered palm oil in Abydos dating back to 3,000 BCE. [3] It is thought that Arab traders brought the oil palm to Egypt. [4]

The first western person to describe it and bring back the seeds to the French naturalist Michel Adanson . [5]


Mature palms are single-stemmed and grow to 20 m tall. The leaves are pinnate and reach 3-5 m long. A young palm produces about 30 leaves a year. Established palms over 10 years old produce about 20 leaves a year. The flowers are produced in dense clusters; each individual flower is small, with three sepals and three petals.

The palm fruit takes 5-6 months to mature from pollination to maturity. It is reddish, about the size of a large plum, and grows in large bunches. Each fruit is made of an oily, fleshy outer layer (the pericarp), with a single seed (the palm kernel ), also rich in oil. When ripe, each bunch of fruit weighs between 5 and 30 kg (11 and 66 lb) depending on the age of the palm tree.


For each hectare of oil palm, which is harvested year-round, the annual production averages 20 tonnes citation needed ] of fruit yielding 4,000 kg of palm oil and 750 kg citation needed ] of seed kernels yielding 500 kg of high-quality palm kernel oil, as 600 kg of kernel meal. Kernel meal is processed for use as livestock feed. [6]

All modern, commercial planting material consists of tenera palms or DxP hybrids, which are obtained by crossing thickshelled with shell-less pisifera. Although it is commonplace, it is thick-shelled as a whole, resulting in thin-shelled tenera fruit. An alternative to germinated seed, which is one of the most common forms of production, is provided with “clonal” palms, which provide “true copies” of high-yielding DxP palms.

An oil palm nursery must have an uninterrupted supply of clean water and topsoil which is both well-structured and thoroughly deep to accommodate three rounds of on-site bag-filling. About 35 ha can grow enough seedlings over a three-year period to plant a 5,000-ha plantation. Prenursery seedlings must be watered daily. Whenever rainfall is less than 10 mm per day, irrigation is required, and the system must be capable of uniformly applying 6.5 mm water per day.

Prenursery seedlings in the four-leaf stage of development (10 to 14 weeks after planting) are usually transplanted to the main nursery after their gradual adjustment to full sunlight and a rigid selection process. During culling, seedlings that are grassy, ​​crinkled, twisted, or rolled leaves are discarded.

Weeds growing in the polybags must be carefully pulled out. Herbicides should not be used. Numerous insects (ants, armyworms, bagworms, aphids, thrips, mites, grasshoppers, and mealybugs) and vertebrates (rats, squirrels, porcupines, wild boars, and monkeys) are pests in oil-palm nurseries are implemented.

After eight months in the nursery, normal healthy plants should be 0.8-1m in height and display five to eight functional leaves.

The proper approach to oil palm development begins with the establishment of leguminous cover plants, immediately following land clearing. They help prevent soil erosion and surface run-off, improve soil structure, and increase soil growth, and reduce the risk of micronutrient deficiencies. Leguminous cover plants also help prevent outbreaks of Oryctesbeetles, which is in exposed decomposing vegetation. Both phosphorus and potassium fertilizers are needed to maximize the leguminous cover plants’ symbiotic nitrogen-fixation potential of around 200 kg nitrogen / ha / yr, and are applied to most soils at 115 to 300 kg phosphorus oxide / ha and 35 to 60 kg potassium oxide / ha. Young palms are severely set back where fat is allowed to dominate the inter-row vegetation, particularly on poor soils where the correction of nutrient deficiencies is difficult and costly.

Crop nutrient

Nutrient uptake is low during the first year, but increases steeply between year one and year three (when harvesting starts) and stabilizes around five to six years. Early applications of fertilizer , better planting material, and more rigidity in plant growth. In regions without a significant drop in rainfall , yields of over 25 tonnes of fresh fruit bunches per hectare-have-been Achieved in the second year of harvesting.

Nitrogen deficiency is usually associated with waterlogging, heavy weed infestation, and topsoil erosion . Symptoms are a general paling and stiffening of the pinnae, which lose their glossy luster. Extended deficiency will reduce the number of effective fruit bunches produced, as well as the bunch size.

Phosphorus-deficient leaves of not show specific symptoms, but frond length, bunch size, and trunk diameter are all reduced.

Potassium deficiency is very common and is the major yield constraint in sandy or peaty soils . The most frequent symptom is “confluent orange spotting”. Pale green spots appear on the pinnae of older leaves; as the deficiency intensifies, the spots turn orange or reddish-orange and desiccation sets in, starting from the tips and outer margins of the pinnae. Other symptoms are “orange blotch” and “midcrown yellowing”. In a low water-holding capacity (sands and peats), potassium deficiency can lead to rapid, premature desiccation of fronds.

Copper deficiency is common on deep peat soils and also on very sandy soils. It appears as a whitish-yellow mottling of younger fronds. As the deficiency intensifies, yellow, mottled, interveinal stripes appear, and rusty, brown spots develop on the distal ends of leaflets. Affected Fronds and Leaflets are stunted and leaflets dry up. On sandy soils, palms recover rapidly after a basal application of 50 grams of copper sulphate. On peat soils, lasting Correction of copper deficiency is difficulty, as applied copper sulfate is rendered unavailable. A promising method of correcting copper deficiency with clay and copper sulphate Soil and to form tennis ball sized “copper mudballs” that are placed around the palm to provide a slow-release source of copper.

Healthy, well selected seedlings are necessary for early and sustained high yield. In most cases, granular multinutrient compound fertilizers are the preferred nutrient source for seedlings in the nursery. Where can be required (10-15 g every six to eight weeks). Where compound fertilizers are not available, should be used.

To maintain good fertilizer response and high yields in older palms, selective thinning is often necessary.


This section should be expandedwith: Cross-breeding E. guineensis with E. oleifera should be included. You can help by adding to it . (September 2012)

Unlike other relative, oil palms do not produce offshoots ; spread is by sowing the seeds .

Several types and forms of Elaeis guineensis have been selected that have different characteristics. These include: [7]

  • E. guineensis fo. lasted
  • E. guineensis var. pisifera
  • E, guineensis fo. tenera

Before the Second World War, the work was started in the Deli dura population in Malaya. Pollen was imported from Africa, and DxT and DxP crosses were made. Segregation of fruit forms in sticks made in the 1950s was often incorrect. In the absence of a good marker gene, there was no way of knowing whether control of pollination was adequate.

After the work of Beirnaert and Vanderweyen (1941), it became possible to monitor the efficacy of controlled pollination. From 1963 until the introduction of the palm-pollinating weevil Elaeidobius kamerunicus in 1982, contamination in Malaysia’s commercial plantings was generally low. Thrips, the hand pollinating agent at that time, in the unlikely event of inflorescence. However, E. kamerunicus is much more persistent, and after it was introduced, Deli dura contamination clarification needed ]became a significant problem. This problem apparently persisted for much of the 1980s, but in a comparison of seed sources, contamination had been reduced to below 2%, indicating control had been restored.

A 1992 study at a plot plot in Banting , Selangor, revealed the “yield of Deli dura oil palms after the generation of a population of the population of the world”. fruit type improved in the yield of the fruit, giving a yield of 30% in the yield of the shell, without changing total dry matter production. ” [8]

In 2013, the search for control of the phenomenon was made, making it possible to verify tenera (DxP) status while palms are still in the nursery. [9]


Basal stem rot (BSR), caused by the fungus Ganoderma , is the most serious disease of oil palm in Malaysia and Indonesia. Previously, research on basal stem is hampered by the failure to artificially infect oil palms with the fungus. Although Ganoderma has been associated with BSR, it has been shown to be successful in the early stages of pregnancy. A reliable and quick technique for testing the pathogenicity of the fungus by inoculating oil palm germinated seeds. [10]

This fatal disease can lead to losses as much as 80% after repeated planting cycles. Ganoderma produces enzymes that degrade the infected xylem, thus causing serious problems to the distribution of water and other nutrients to the top of the palm. [11] Ganoderma infection is well defined by its lesions in the stem. The cross-section of infected palm stem shows that the lesions appear as a light brown area of ​​rotting tissue with a distinctive, irregularly shaped, darker band at the borders of this area. [12] The infected tissue becomes ashen-gray powdery and if the palm remains standing, the infected trunk quickly becomes hollow. [13]

In a 2007 study in Portugal, the study suggests that the fungus on oil palms would benefit from further consideration of the process. Ganoderma is an extraordinary organism capable exclusively of degrading lignin to carbon dioxide and water; celluloses are then available as nutrients for the fungus. It is necessary to consider this mode of attack as a white rot involving lignin biodegradation, for integrated control. The existing literature does not report this area and appears to be particularly relevant to the mode of spread and molecular biology of Ganoderma . The white rot perception opens up new fields in breeding / selecting for resistant palms with high ligninContaining the conditions for lignin decomposition are reduced, and The spread likely is by spores rather than roots. The knowledge gained can be employed in the process of accelerating the degradation of the oil field, and more appropriately (eg, chipping and spreading over the floor rather than windrowing). [14]

Endophytic bacteria are organisms inhabiting the plant that have some time in their life cycles can colonize the internal plant tissues without causing apparent harm to the host. [15] Introducing endophytic bacteria to the roots to control the disease is to manipulate the indigenous bacterial communities of the roots in a manner, which leads to enhanced suppression of soil-borne pathogens. The use of endophytic bacteria should therefore be preferred to other biological control agents, as they are internal colonizers, with better ability to compete in the vascular systems, limiting Ganoderma for both nutrients and space during their proliferation. Two bacterial isolates, Burkholderia cepacia (B3) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa(P3) were selected for evaluation in the glasshouse for their subsequent growth and subsequent release of BSR in oil palm seedlings. [16]

Little leaf syndrome has not been fully explained, but has been confused with boron deficiency. The growing point is damaged, sometimes by Oryctes beetles. Small, distorted leaves resembling a boron deficiency emerge. This is often followed by secondary pathogenic infections in the spear that can lead to spear rot and death. [17]


Elaeis guineensis originated in Guinea , Africa and was first illustrated by Nicholaas Jacquin in 1763.

Oil palms were introduced to Java by the Dutch in 1848, [18] and to Malaysia (then the British colony of Malaya ) in 1910 by Scotsman William Sime and English banker Henry Darby. The species of palm tree Elaeis guineensis was taken to Malaysia from Eastern Nigeria in 1961. As noted in Africa. The southern coast of Nigeria was originally called the oil palm by the first Europeans who arrived there and traded in the commodity. This area was later renamed the Bight of Biafra.

In traditional African medicine different parts of the plant are used as a laxative and diuretic , as a poison antidote, as a cure for gonorrhea , menorrhagia , and bronchitis , to treat headaches and rheumatism , to Promote healing of fresh wounds and treat skin infections. [19]


In Malaysia, the first plantations mostly Were Established and operated by British plantation owners, Such As Sime Darby and Boustead, and Remained listed in London up to the Malaysian government engineered their “Malaysianisation” Throughout the 1960s and 1970s. [20]

Federal Land Development Authority (Felda) is the world’s largest oil palm plant, with 900,000 hectares in Malaysia and Indonesia. Felda was formed on July 1, 1956 when the Land Development Act came into force with the hand of eradicating poverty. Settlers were allocated 10 acres of land (about 4 hectares ) planted with oil palm or rubber, and given 20 years to the debt of the land. [21]

After Malaysia achieved independence in 1957, the government focused on value-added of rubber planting, boosting exports, and alleviating poverty through land schemes. In the 1960s and 1970s, the government encouraged planting of other crops, to cushion the world of tin and rubber plunged. Rubber estates gave way to oil palm plantations. In 1961, Felda’s first oil palm opened, with 3.75 km² of land. As of 2000, 6855.2 km² (approximately 76%) of the land under Felda’s programs were devoted to oil palms. [22] By 2008, Felda’s resettlement broadened to 112,635 families, who work on 8533.13 km² of agriculture land throughout Malaysia. Oil palm planting took up 84% of Felda’s plantation landbank. [23]

FELDA ‘s success led to the establishment of other development schemes to support the establishment of small-farmer oil palm cultivation. The Federal Land Consolidation and Rehabilitation Authority (FELCRA) was established in 1966 [24] and the Sarawak Land Consolidation and Rehabilitation Authority (SALCRA) was formed in 1976. [25] The primary objective of these organizations is to assist in the development of rural communities and reduce poverty through the cultivation of high yielding crops such as palm oil. [24] [25]

As of November 2011 , SALCRA had developed 18 estates totaling approximately 51,000 hectares. That year the organization shared dividends with 16,374 landowners participating in the program. [26]

Palm oil production

Oil is extracted from the fruit of the fruit ( palm oil , an edible oil) and the kernel ( palm oil kernel , used in foods and for soap manufacture). For every 100 kg of fruit bunches, typically 22 kg of palm oil and 1.6 kg of palm kernel oil can be extracted.

The high oil yield of oil palms (as high as 7,250 liters per hectare per year) has made it a common cooking ingredient in Southeast Asia and the tropical belt of Africa. It increases its price, [27]the high oxidative stability of the refined product, [28] [29] and high levels of natural antioxidants. [30]

The oil palm originated in West Africa , but has been successfully planted in tropical regions within the equator. In the Republic of Congo , or Congo Brazzaville, precisely in the Northern part, not far from Ouesso , local people produce this oil by hand. They harvest the fruit, boil it to the water evaporate, then press what is left to collect the reddish-orange-colored oil.

In 1995, Malaysia was the world’s largest producer, with a 51% of world share, but since 2007, Indonesia has been the world’s largest producer, supplying approximately 50% of world palm oil volume.

Worldwide palm oil production for 2011/2012 was 50.3 million metric tons , increasing to 52.3 million tons for 2012/13. [31] In 2010/2011, total production of palm kernels was 12.6 million tonnes. [32]

The Urhobo people of Nigeria uses the extract to make Amiedi soup.

Oil palm research

Key scientific journals publishing on oil palm and related topics include: [33]

  • Journal of Oil Palm Research (JOPR) [2]
  • Journal of Applied Polymer Science
  • Conservation Letters
  • Bioresource Technology
  • Trends in Ecology and Evolution

Social and environmental impacts

See also: Social and environmental impact of palm oil

The social and environmental impacts of oil palm cultivation is a highly controversial topic. [34] [35] Oil palm is a major source of employment. It allows many small landholders to participate in the cash economy and often results in the upgrade of the infrastructure (schools, roads, telecommunications) within that area. Citation needed ] HOWEVER, there are Where Native Customary lands boxes-have-been appropriated by oil palm plantations Without Any form of consultation or compensation, [36] leading to social conflict entre les plantations and local residents. [37]In some cases, palm plantations are dependent on the labor market or illegal immigrants, with some concerns about the employment conditions and social impacts of these practices. [38]

Biodiversity loss (including the potential extinction of charismatic species ) is one of the most serious negative effects of oil palm cultivation. Large areas of the tropical rainforest are often made to palm oil plantations, especially in Southeast Asia, where enforcement of forest protection laws is lacking. In Some states Where oil palm is ESTABLISHED, lax enforcement of environmental legislation leads to encroachment of plantations into protected areas, [39]encroachment into riparian strips, [40] open burning of plant wastes, citation needed ] and release of palm mill pollutants such as palm oil mill effluent (POME) in the environment. [40]Some of these states have been recognized for the need for increased environmental protection, resulting in more environment-friendly practices. [41] [42] Among those approaches is anaerobic treatment of POME, which can be a good source for biogas (methane) production and electricity generation. Anaerobic treatment of POME has been practiced in Malaysia and Indonesia. Like most wastewater sludge, anaerobic treatment of POME results in dominance of Methanosaeta concilii . It plays an important role in methane production from acetate, and the optimum condition for its growth should be considered to be biogas as renewable fuel. [43]

Demand for palm oil HAS Increased in recent years due to ict use as a biofuel , [44] aim recognition That this Increases the environmental impact of cultivation, as well as Causing a food vs fuel issue, Has forced Some Developed Nations to Reconsider Their policies biofuel to improve standards and ensure sustainability. [45] However, it is important to note that sustainable oil companies continue to engage in environmentally friendly practices. [46] However, it is also important to encourage the conversion of natural habitats such as forests. and peatlands, releasing large quantities of greenhouse gases. [47]

Carbon balance

Oil palm production has been documented as a substantial irreversible damage to the environment. [48] Its impacts include deforestation , habitat loss of critically endangered species , [49] [50] [51] and a significant increase in greenhouse gas emissions. [52]

The pollution is Exacerbated Because Many rainforests in Indonesia and Malaysia binds atop peat bogs That store great quantities of carbon, qui are released When the forests are cut down and the bogs are drained to make way for the plantations.

Environmental groups, such as Greenpeace , claim the deforestation caused by making way for oil palm plantations is far more damaging to the climate than the benefits gained by switching to biofuel. [53] [54] Fresh land clearances, especially in Borneo , are contentious for their environmental impact. [55] [56] Despite being located in Indonesia, tropical hardwood forests are being cleared for palm oil plantations. Furthermore, the unprotected lowland forest dwindles, developers are looking to plant peat swamp land, using drainage that begins an oxidationprocess of the peat which can release 5,000 to 10,000 years worth of stored carbon. Drained peat is also very high risk of forest fire. There is a clear record of being used to clear vegetation in Indonesia , where in recent years drought and man-made clearances to massive uncontrolled forest fires , covering parts of Southeast Asia in haze and leading to an international crisis with Malaysia . These fictions have been blamed on a government with small capacity to enforce its own laws, while impoverished small farmers, and large plantation owners. [57][58]

Many of the major companies in the vegetable oil economy participate in the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil , which is trying to address this problem. For example, in 2008, Unilever, a member of the group, which is committed to sustainable development, by which it is certified as sustainable, by ensuring the large companies and smallholders that it converts to sustainable production by 2015. [59]

Meanwhile, much of the recent investment in new markets for biofuels has been funded through carbon credit projects through the Clean Development Mechanism ; however, the reputational risk associated with the unsustainable palm plantations in Indonesia. [60]

Palm biomass as fuel

Some scientists are going beyond using just the oil, and are proposing to convert fronds, empty fruit bunches and palm kernel shells harvested from oil palm plantations into renewable electricity, [61] cellulosic ethanol , [62] biogas , [63] biohydrogen [64] and bioplastic . [65] Thus, by using both the biomass from the plantation and the production of oil (fibers, kernel shells, palm oil mill effluent), bioenergy from palm plantations can have an effect on reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Examples of these production techniques have been registered under Kyoto Protocol ‘sClean Development Mechanism .

The use of biomass to generate renewable energy, fuels and biodegradable products, both the energy balance and the greenhouse gas emissions balance is improved. For every ton of palm oil produced from fresh fruit bunches, a farmer harvests around 6 tons of waste palm fronds, 1 ton of palm trunks, 5 tons of empty fruit bunches, 1 ton of press fiber (from the mesocarp of the fruit), half a ton of palm kernel endocarp, 250 kg of palm kernel press cake, and 100 tons of palm oil mill effluent. quote needed ]Some oil palm plantations incinerate biomass to generate power for palm oil mills. Some other oil palm plantations yield large amount of biomass that can be recycled into medium density fiberboards and light furniture. [66] In efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, scientists treat palm oil mill effluent to extract biogas. After purification, biogas can substitute for natural gas for use at factories. Anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent, practiced in Malaysia and Indonesia, results in domination of Methanosaeta concilii . It plays an important role in methane production of acetate and the optimum condition for its growth should be considered to be biogas as renewable fuel. [43]

Unfortunately, the production of palm oil has been shown to be sustainable biofuel. The deforestation occurs throughout Malaysia and Indonesia as a result of the growing demand for this natural habitat for orangutans and other rainforest dwellers. More carbon is released during the life cycle of a palm oil plant to its use as a biofuel than is emitted by the same volume of fossil fuels. [67]

Malayan folkculture

Since the days when the ‘guineesis’ was first introduced by the British, Indian laborers were brought to work the estates. There, Hindu beliefs mixed with the local Malay culture and started the use of palm seeds by traditional healers suffixed with tok ‘ bomoh ‘ or pawang in the local language. Every bunch of palm fruit usually bears a single ‘illustrious’ seed which looks like a shiny black pearl called sbatmi in Tamil and shakti in Malay. These are used as accessories by the bomoh and pawangin the mixed ritual for peace with nature. quote needed ]

Modern use has a more common sense of the word, but it does not matter what they are. All palm seeds contain acid; These topics are no different and should be handled with care. Shatmi lost some popularity when it was used in a grisly ritual by Mona Fandey in 1993. citation needed ]