Energy crop

An energy crop is a plant grown as a low-cost and low-Maintenance harvest used to make biofuels , Such As bioethanol , gold icts combusted for energy glad to generate electricity or heat. Energy crops are categorized as woody or herbaceous plants; many of the latter are grasses of the family Graminaceae .

Commercial energy crops are typically densely planted, high-yielding crop species which are processed to bio-fuel and burnt to generate power. Woody crops Such As willow [1] or poplar are Widely utilised, as well as fat tempera Such As Miscanthus and Pennisetum purpureum (both Known As elephant grass). [2] If carbohydrate is desired for the production of biogas , whole-crops such as maize , Sudan grass , millet , white sweet clover and many others, can be made into silage and then converted into biogas. [3]

Through genetic modification and application of biotechnology plants can be manipulated to create greater yields, less water. High energy yield can also be realized with existing cultivars . [3] : 250


By state

Solid biomass

Energy generated by burning plants grown for the purpose, often after the dry matter is pelletized . Energy crops are used for firing power plants, either alone or co-fired with other fuels. They may be used for heat or combined heat and power (CHP) production.

To cover the growing requirements of woody biomass, short rotational coppice (SRC) were applied to agricultural sites. Within this cropping systems fast growing tree species like willows and poplars are planted in growing cycles of three to five years. The cultivation of this culture is dependent on wet soil conditions and could be an alternative for moist field fills. However, an influence on local water conditions could not be excluded. This indicates that an establishment should exclude the proximity to vulnerable wetland ecosystems. [4] [5] [6]

Gas biomass (methane)

Anaerobic digesters or biogas plants Can Be Directly Supplemented with energy crops-have-been ensiled ounce They into silage . Renewable Energy Crops has grown to nearly 500,000 ha (1,200,000 acres) of land (2006). [7] Energy crops can also be grown to boost gas yields where these feedstocks have a low energy content, such as manures and spoiled grain. It is estimated that the energy yield is now 2 GWh / km 2 (1.8 × 10 10  BTU / sq mi). Small mixed cropping enterprises with the use of nutrients and nutrients. In Europe and especially Germany, however, this rapid growth has occurred with substantial government support, as in the German bonus system for renewable energy . Similar developments in integrated farming and bioenergy production via silage-methane have been almost entirely overlooked in N. America, where political and structural issues have been significantly increased. quote needed ]

Liquid biomass

Sun-dried coconuts in Kozhikode , Kerala for making copra, the dried meat, or kernel, of the coconut . Coconut oil extracted from it has made copra an important agricultural commodity for many coconut-producing countries. It also yields coconut cake which is mainly used as feed for livestock.
Pure Biodiesel (B-100), made from soybeans

European production of biodiesel from energy crops has grown steadily in the last decade, principally focused on rapeseed used for oil and energy. Production of oil / biodiesel from rape covers more than 12,000 km² in Germany alone, and has doubled in the past 15 years. [8] Typical yield of oil as pure biodiesel may be 100,000 L / km 2 (68,000 US gal / sq mi; 57,000 imp gal / sq mi) or more, making biodiesel crops economically attractive, provided sustainable crop rotations exist that are nutrient -balanced and preventative of the spread of disease such as clubroot . Biodiesel yield of soybeans is significantly lower than that of rape. quote needed ]

Typical oil extractable by weight
Crop Oil%
copra 62
beaver seed 50
sesame 50
groundnut kernel 42
jatropha 40
rapeseed 37
palm kernel 36
mustard seed 35
sunflower 32
palm fruit 20
soybean 14
cotton seed 13

Energy crops for biobutanol are fat . Two leading non-food crops for the production of cellulosic bioethanol are switchgrass and giant miscanthus . There has been concern with cellulosic bioethanol in the United States. citation needed ] Therefore, a lot of private money and investor hopes are being marketed and patentable innovations in enzyme hydrolysis and the like.

Bioethanol also refers to the technology of principally corn (maize seed) to make ethanol directly through fermentation, a process that under certain conditions and conditions can be sustainable. New developments in the conversion of grain stillage (DGS) in the biogas energy.

By dedication

Dedicated energy crops are non food food crops as miscanthus , switchgrass , jatropha , fungi , and algae . Dedicated energy crops are promising cellulose sources that can be sustainably produced in many regions of the United States. [9]

Additionally, the green waste byproducts of food and non-food energy crops can be used to produce various biofuels.

See also

  • Agriculture portal
  • Renewable energy portal
  • Energy portal
  • Agricultural byproduct
  • Algal fuel
  • Anaerobic digestion
  • Biogas
  • Biotech crop
  • Cellulosic ethanol
  • Eichhornia crassipes # Bioenergy
  • European Biomass Association
  • Myriophyllum
  • Non-food crop
  • Short rotation coppice
  • Short rotation forestry
  • Table of biofuel crop yields
  • Vegoil


  1. Jump up^ Mola-Yudego, B; Aronsson, P. (2008). “Yield models for commercial willow biomass plantations in Sweden”. Biomass and Bioenergy (PDF) . 32 (9): 829-837. doi : 10.1016 / j.biombioe.2008.01.002 .
  2. Jump up^ NNFCC, Hodsman, L. Smallwood, Mr. Williams, D.”The Promotion of Non-Food Crops”, National Non-Food Crops Center , 2005-11-30. Retrieved on 2009-05-11.
  3. ^ Jump up to:b Ara Kirakosyan; Peter B. Kaufman (2009-08-15). Recent Advances in Plant Biotechnology . p. 169. ISBN  9781441901934 . Retrieved 14 February 2013 .
  4. Jump up^ Hartwich, Jens (2017). “Assessment of the regional suitability of short rotation coppice in Germany (PDF Download Available)” . Doctoral Thesis. Freie Universität Berlin. Institute for Geographische Wissenschaften . doi : 10.13140 / rg.2.2.17825.20326 – via ResearchGate.
  5. Jump up^ Hartwich, Jens; Bölscher, Jens; Schulte, Achim (2014-09-19). “Impact of short-rotation coppice on water and land resources” . Water International . 39 (6): 813-825. doi : 10.1080 / 02508060.2014.959870 . ISSN  0250-8060 .
  6. Jump up^ Hartwich, Jens; Schmidt, Markus; Bölscher, Jens; Reinhardt-Imjela, Christian; Murach, Dieter; Schulte, Achim (2016-07-11). “Hydrological Modeling of Changes in the Water Balance of the Impact of Woody Biomass Production in the North German Plain” . Environmental Earth Sciences . 75 (14): 1-17. doi : 10.1007 / s12665-016-5870-4 . ISSN  1866-6280 .
  7. Jump up^ “Environmental Use of BioMass” .
  8. Jump up^ “Bio Mass Energy” . missingin Authors list ( help ) |first1=|last1=
  9. Jump up^ Biotechnology Industry Organization (2007). Industrial Biotechnology Is Revolutionizing the Production of Ethanol Transportation Fuel pp. 3-4.