Hemp , or industrial hemp (from Old English hænep ), [1] typically found in the northern hemisphere , is a variety of Cannabis sativa plant species that is grown specifically for the industrial uses of its derived products. [2] It is one of the fastest growing seedlings [3] and was one of the first plants to be spun into usable fiber 10,000 years ago. [4] It can be refined into a variety of commercial items including paper, textiles , clothing, biodegradable plastics, paint, insulation, biofuel, food, and animal feed. [5]

ALTHOUGH cannabis as a drug and industrial hemp Both derived from the species Cannabis sativa and Contain the psychoactive component tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), They Are separate strains with single phytochemical compositions and uses. [6] Hemp has lower concentrations of THC and higher concentrations of cannabidiol (CBD), which decreases or eliminates its psychoactive effects. [6] The legality of industrial hemp varies widely between countries. Some governments regulate the concentration of THC and allow it to be reduced to a low THC content. [7][8]


Further information: Etymology of cannabis

The etymology is uncertain but there appears to be no common Proto-Indo-European source for the various forms of the word; the Greek term kánnabis is the oldest attested form, qui May-have-been borrowed from an Earlier Scythian gold Thracian word. [9] [10] Then it appears to be borrowed into Latin, and separately into Slavic and from there into Baltic, Finnish, and Germanic languages . [11] Following Grimm’s law , the “k” would have changed to “h” with the first Germanic sound shift, [9] [12] after which it may be adapted to the Old English form, hænep. However, this theory assumes that it was not widely spread among different societies until it was already being used as a psychoactive drug, which Adams and Mallory (1997) believe to be unlikely based on archaeological evidence. [9] Barber (1991) however, arguing that the spread of the name “kannabis” is due to its historically more recent drug use, starting from the south, around Iran, while non-THC types of older and prehistoric. [11] Another possible source of origin is Assyrian qunnabu , which was the name for a source of oil, fiber, and medicine in the 1st millennium BC. [11]

Cognates of hemp in other Germanic languages include Dutch Hennep , Danish and Norwegian hamp , German Hanf , and Swedish hampa . [9]


Hemp is used to make a variety of commercial and industrial products including rope, clothes, food, paper, textiles, plastics, insulation and biofuel. [5] The bast fibers can be used to make textiles that are 100% hemp, but they are commonly blended with other organic fibers such as flax , cotton or silk, to make fabrics and apparel. The inner two fibers of the plant are more woody and typically have industrial applications, such as mulch, animal bedding and litter. When oxidized (often erroneously referred to as “drying”), hemp oilfrom the seeds is a solid and can be used in the manufacture of oil-based paints, in a moisturizing agent cream, for cooking, and in plastics. Hemp seeds have been used in the feed mix as well. [13] A survey in 2003 showed that more than 95% of hemp seed sold in the European Union was used in animal and bird feed. [14]


Hemp seeds can be eaten raw, ground into a meal, sprouted , or made into dried sprout powder. The leaves of the hemp plant can be consumed raw in salads. Hemp can be made into a aussi liquid and used for baking or for beverages Such As hemp milk , hemp juice , citation needed ] and tea. [15] Hempseed oil is cold-pressed from the seed and is high in unsaturated fatty acids. [16] In 2011, the US imported $ 11.5 million worth of hemp products, mostly driven by growth in demand for hemp seed and hemp oil for use as ingredients in foods such as granola. [17]

In the UK, the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) treats hemp as a purely non-food crop, but with proper licensing and proof of less than 0.2% THC concentration, can be imported for sowing or for sale as a food or food ingredient. [18] In the US, imported hemp can be used in food products Legally and as of 2000 , Was Typically sold in health food stores or through mail order. [16]


100 grams of hulled hemp seeds supply 586 calories . They are 5% water, 5% carbohydrates , 49% total fat and 31% protein . Hemp seeds are notable in providing 64% of the Daily Value of protein per 100 gram serving. [19]Further information: Hemp protein

Hempseed amino acid is comparable to other sources of protein such as meat, milk, eggs and soy . [20] Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score Values ​​( PDCAAS ), which measure the degree to which a food for humans is a “complete protein”, were 0.49-0.53 for whole hemp seed, 0.46-0.51 for hemp seed meal, and 0.63 -0.66 for dehulled hemp seed. [21]

Hemp seeds are a rich source of vitamins , dietary minerals , manganese (362% DV), phosphorus (236% DV), magnesium (197% DV), zinc (104% DV), iron (61% DV) and dietary fiber(20% DV) (table).

Approximately 73% of the energy in hemp seeds is in the form of fats and essential fatty acids , [19] mainly polyunsaturated fatty acids , linoleic , oleic and alpha-linolenic acids. [20]


Hemp oil oxidizes and turns rancid within a short period of time if not stored properly; [16] its shelf life is extended when stored in a dark airtight container and refrigerated.


Hemp fiber has been used extensively throughout history, with production climaxing soon after being introduced to the New World. Items ranging from rope, to fabrics, to industrial materials have been made from hemp fiber. Hemp was often used to make canvas , and the word canvas derives from cannabis . [22] [23] Today, a modest hemp fabric industry exists, and hemp fibers can be used in clothing. [24] Pure hemp has a texture similar to linen . [25]


Traditionally the hemp stalks would be water- retted first before the fibers were beaten off the inner hurdles by hand; a process known as scutching . As mechanical technology evolved, separating the fiber from the core was accomplished by crushing rollers and brush rollers that would produce a nearly clean fiber. After the Marijuana Tax Act was implemented in 1938, the technology for separating the fibers from the core remained “frozen in time”.

Only in 1997, starting with Ireland Did the Commonwealth countries and other countries Then begin to Legally grow industrial hemp again. Iterations of the 1930s decorticator -have-been met with limited success, along with steam explosion and chemical processing Known As thermomechanical pulping . quote needed ]

Building material

Main article: hempcrete

Concrete-like blocks made with hemp and lime have been used as an insulating material for construction. Such blocks are not strong enough to be used for structural elements; they must be supported by a brick, wood, or steel frame. [26] However, these fibers are extremely strong and durable, and have been shown to be very durable and breathable.

The first example of the use of hempcrete was in 1986 in France with the renovation of the House of Turkish in Nogent-sur-Seine by the innovator Charles Rasetti. [27] In the UK hemp was first used in 2000 for the construction of two test dwellings in Haverhill. [28] Designed by Modece Architects, [29] who pioneered the use of UK construction, the hemp houses were monitored by other standard dwellings by BRE. Completed in 2009, The Renewable House is one of the most technologically advanced made from hemp-based materials. [30] The first US made of hemp-based materials was completed in August 2010 in Asheville, North Carolina. [31]

A panellized system of hemp-lime is currently under study in a European Union funded research collaboration led by the University of Bath . The panels are being designed to ensure high quality construction, rapid on-site erection, optimal hygrothermal performance from one day and energy efficient resource buildings. The 36-month-long work program aims to produce and manufacture data, certifications, insurance and insurance. It also includes the development of markets in Britain, France and Spain. [32]

Hemp is used as an internal plaster and is a mixture of hemp hurd (shive) mixed with larger proportions of a lime based binder. Hemp plaster has insulative qualities. [33]

Plastic and composite materials

Main article: Bioplastic

A mixture of fiberglass , hemp fiber, kenaf , and flax has been used since 2002 to make composite panels for automobiles. [34] The choice of qui bast fiber to use is based Primarily it cost and availability. Various, including Audi , BMW , Ford , GM , Chrysler , Honda , Iveco , Lotus , Mercedes , Mitsubishi , Porsche , Saturn, Volkswagen [35]and Volvo. For example, the Lotus Eco Elise [36] and the Mercedes C-Class both contain hemp (up to 20 kg in each car in the case of the latter). [37]

An aircraft constructed mostly from hemp, the Hempearth Hemp Plane , est under development for launch in late 2017. [38]


Hemp paper is used for packaging, stationery, journals, fine art papers and business cards.

Fiber sources

The most common fiber source has been recycled fibers from used textiles, called rags. The rags were of hemp, linen and cotton . [39] A process for Removing printing inks from recycled paper Was invented by German jurist Justus Claproth in 1774. [39] Today this method s’intitule deinking . It was not until the introduction of wood pulp in 1843 that paper production was not dependent on recycled materials from ragpickers . [39]

History and development

The first identified coarse paper , made from hemp, dates to the early Western Han Dynasty , two hundred years before the nominal invention of papermaking by Cai Lun , who improved and standardized paper production using a range of inexpensive materials, including hemp ends, approximately 2000 years ago. [40] Recycled clothing, net rags and fishing were used as inputs for paper production.

The Saint Petersburg, Russia , paper mill of Goznak opened in 1818. It was used as a main input material. Paper from the mill was used in the printing of ” bank notes , stamped paper, credit bills, postal stamps, bonds, stocks, and other watermarked paper.” [41]

In 1916, US Department of Agriculture’s chief scientists Lyster Hoxie Dewey and Jason L. Merrill created paper made from hemp pulp and concluded that paper from hemp hurds was “favorable in comparison with those used with pulp wood.” [42] [43] The chemical composition of hemp hurts is similar to that of wood, [44] making a good choice of raw materials for manufacturing paper. Modern research has not confirmed the positive finding of hemp hurdles from 1916. A later book on hemp and other fibers by LH Dewey (1943). [45] Dried hemp has about 57% cellulose(the main ingredient in paper), compared to about 40-50% in wood. [46] [47] [48] Hemp also has the advantage of a lower lignin content: hemp contains only 5-24% lignin [49] against the 20-35% found in wood. [50] This lignin must be removed chemically and wood requires more chemicals in the process. [51] The current production of hemp fiber in the US continued to decline until 1933 to around 500 tones / year. Between 1934 and 1935, the cultivation of hemp began to increase but still has a significant increase in the price of paper. [52] [53]


Currently there is a small market for hemp pulp, for example a cigarette paper. [54] Hemp fiber is mixed with fiber from other sources than hemp. In 1994 there was no significant production of 100% true hemp paper. [55] World hemp pulp production was believed to be around 120,000 tons per year in 1991 which was about 0.05% of the world’s annual pulp production volume. [56]The total world production of hemp fiber had declined in 2003 from about 80,000 tons. [54] This can be compared to a typical pulp mill for wood fiber, which is never smaller than 250,000 tons per annum. [55] [57] The cost of hemp pulp is approximately six times that of wood pulp, [56]mostly Because of the small size and outdated equipment of the FEW hemp processing plants in the Western world, and Because hemp is harvested once a year (During August) citation needed ] and needs to be Stored to feed the mill the whole year through. This storage requires a lot of (mostly manual) handling of the bulky stalk bundles. Another issue is that the entire plant can not be economically prepared for paper production. While the wood products industry is nearly 100% of the fiber from harvested trees, only about 25% of the dried hemp stem-the bark, called bast-contains the long, strong fibers desirable for paper production. [58] All this accounts for a high raw material cost. Hemp pulp is bleached with hydrogen peroxide, a process nowadays commonly used for wood pulp.

Market share

Around the year 2000, the production amount of flax and hemp pulp total 25000-30000 tons per year, having been produced from approximately 37000-45000 tons fiber. Up to 80% of the production is used for specialty papers (including 95% of cigarette paper ). Only about 20% hemp fiber input goes into the standard pulp area and are here mostly in lower quality (Untreated oakum high shive glad added) wood pulps. With hemp pulp alone, the proportion of papers is probably 99%. The market is considered saturated with little or no growth in this area. [59] [60]


Hemp jewelry is the product of knotting hemp twine through the practice of macrame . Hemp Jewelery includes bracelets, necklaces, anklets, rings, watches and other adornments. Some jewelery features made from crystals, glass , stone , wood and bones . The hemp twine varies in thickness and comes in a variety of colors. There are many different stitches used to create hemp jewelery, however, the half knot and full knot stitches are most common.


Hemp rope Was used in the age of sailing ships , though the rope Had To Be protected by tarring , since hemp rope: has a propensity for breaking from rot , as the capillary effect of the rope-woven fibers tended to hold liquid at the interior, while seeming dry from the outside. [61] Tarring was a labor-intensive process, and earned sailors the nickname ” Jack Tar “. Hemp was phased out when Manila, which did not require tarring, became widely available. Manila is sometimes referred to as Manila hemp , but is not related to hemp; it is abacá , a species of banana .

Animal bedding

Hemp shives are the core of the stem, and they are broken parts of the core. In the EU, they are used for animal bedding (horses, for instance), or for horticultural mulch. [62] Industrial hemp is much more profitable if both fibers and shives (or even seeds) can be used.

Water and soil purification

Hemp can be used as a “mop crop” to clear impurities out of wastewater, such as sewage effluent, excessive phosphorus from chicken litter, or other unwanted substances or chemicals. Additionally, it is known to be a contaminant at the Chernobyl nuclear disaster site, which is known as a phytoremediation process – the process of clearing radioisotopes as well as a variety of other toxins from the soil, water, and air. [63]

Weed control

Hemp, because of its height, dense foliage and its high planting density as a crop, is a very effective and long-lasting method of killing weeds in the soil. [64] Using herbicides to help increase the benefits of organic farming and the benefits of crop rotation . Due to its rapid, dense growth characteristics, in some jurisdictions, it is considered a banned, much like Scotch Broom . quote needed ]


Biodiesel can be made from the oils in hemp seeds and stalks and alcohol fuel (ethanol gold, less commonly, methanol) from the fermentation of the whole plant. Biodiesel produced from hemp is known as “hempoline”. [65]

Filtered oil can be used directly to power diesel engines . In 1892, Rudolf Diesel invented the diesel engine, which he intended for power “by a variety of fuels, especially vegetable and seed oils, which were earlier used for oil lamps , ie the Argand lamp .” [66] [67] [68]

Production of vehicle fuel from hemp is very small. Commercial biodiesel and biogas is typically produced from cereals, coconuts, palmseeds and cheaper raw materials like garbage, wastewater, dead plant and animal material, animal feces and kitchen waste. [69]


Hemp is usually planted between March and May in the northern hemisphere, between September and November in the southern hemisphere. [70] It matures in about three to four months.

Millennia of selective breeding -have resulted in varieties That look quite different. Also, breeding since circa 1930 has proven to be particularly productive in the production of drugs. Hemp grown for fiber is closely planted, resulting in tall, slender plants with long fibers. “Until the early 1900s is a valid crop in the world today, but the common perception of the industrialized world is also negative and associated with the drug marijuana.. This perception is the legacy of a century of powerful influences, but it is not a drug and it has the potential to be a profitable alternative crop. In the United States, the public’s perception of hemp as marijuana has become unavoidable, and has become a useful crop and product, ” [71] in spite of its vital importance prior to World War II. [72] Ideally, according to Britain’s Department for Environment , Food and Rural Affairs , the herb shoulds be harvested and desiccated Reviews towards the end of flowering. This early cropping Reduces the seed yield goal Improves the fiber yield and quality. [73] In thesis strains of industrial hemp * the tetrahydrocannabinol(THC) content would have been very low. [71]

The seeds are sown from mid-April to mid-May with grain drills to 4-6 cm sowing depth. Hemp needs less fertilizer than corn does. A total of 60-150 kg of nitrogen, 40-140 kg phosphorus (P 2 O 5 ) and 75-200 kg of potassium [5] per acre for hemp fiber made before and after. When practiced, especially in France, double use of fiber and seed fertilization with nitrogen doses up to 100 kg / ha rather low. These fertilizers can be used as industrial hemp well. Neither weeds nor crop protection measures are necessary. [71]


In contrast to cannabis for medical use, these varieties are grown for fiber and are less than 0.3% THC and are unsuitable for producing hashish and marijuana. [74] Present in industrial hemp, cannabidiol is a major are among some 560 compounds found in hemp. [75]

Cannabis sativa L. subsp. sativa var. sativa is the variety grown for industrial use, while C. sativa subsp. indica Generally HAS poor fiber quality and female buds from this variety are Primarily used for recreational and medicinal practical purposes. The major differences between the two types of plants, and the amount of Δ 9 – tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) secreted in a resinous mixture by epidermal hairs called glandular trichomes , although they can also be distinguished genetically. [74] [76] Oilseed and fiber types of Cannabisapproved for industrial production only minutes amounts of this psychoactive drug, not enough for any physical or psychological effects. Typically, hemp contains below 0.3% THC, while cultivars of Cannabisgrown for medicinal or recreational use can contain anywhere from 2% to over 20%. [77]


Smallholder plots are usually harvested by hand. The plants are cut at 2 to 3 cm above the soil and left on the ground to dry. Mechanical harvesting is now common, with specially adapted cutter-binders or simpler cutters.

The cut hemp is ugly in swathes to dry for up to four days. This was traditionally followed by retting , or water retting (the bundled hemp floats in water) or dew retting (the hemp remains on the ground and is affected by the moisture in dew, and by molds and bacterial action).

For profitable hemp farming, particularly deep, humus -rich, nutrient-rich soil with controlled water flow is preferable. Waterlogged acidic, compressed or extremely light (sandy) soils primarily affects the early development of plants. citation needed ] Steep and high altitudes of more than 400 m above sea level are best avoided. Hemp is relatively insensitive to cold temperatures and can withstand frost down to -5 ° C. citation needed ] Seeds can germinate down to 1-3 ° C. citation needed ] Hemp needs a lot of heat, so earlier varieties come to maturity. The water requirement is 300-500 l / kg dry matter. quote needed ]Up to 3 feet growing roots in the soil. Worth noting is that the water requirement is at least 14 times lower than that of cotton, which takes between 7,000 and 29,000 l / kg, according to WWF. quote needed ]

Hemp benefits crops grown after it. For this reason, it is generally grown before winter cereals. Advantageous changes are high weed suppression, soil loosening by the large hemp root system and the positive effect on soil tilth . Since it is very self-compatible, it can also be grown several years in a row in the same fields (monoculture).


Main article: List of hemp diseases

Hemp plants may be vulnerable to various pathogens , including bacteria , fungi , nematodes , viruses and other miscellaneous pathogens. Such diseases often lead to reduced fiber quality, stunted growth, and death of the plant. These diseases rarely affect the yield of a field of production, so they are not traditionally dependent on the use of pesticides.

Environmental impact

Hemp is regarded by a 1998 study in Environmental Economics to be environmentally friendly due to a decrease of Results indicate indication That high yield of hemp May require high total nutrient levels (field more fertilizer nutrients) similar to a high yielding wheat crop.land use and other environmental impacts, indicating a possible decrease of ecological footprint in a US context compared to typical benchmarks.[78] A 2010 study, however, that compared the production of paper specifically from hemp and eucalyptus concluded that “industrial hemp presents higher environmental impacts than eucalyptus paper”; however, the article also highlights that “there is scope for improving industrial hemp paper production”.[79] Hemp is also claimed to require few pesticides and no herbicides, and it has been called a carbon negative raw material.[80][81][82]


Hemp production in tons 2003 & 2013 
 la France 4300 14% 48264 71%
 china 24000 79% 16000 24%
 chile 1250 4% 1450 2%
 Ukraine 150 <1% 1450 1%
 hungary 40 <1% 600 <1%
 russia 300 1% 300 <1%
 romania 100 <1% 150 <1%
 poland 15 <1% 30 <1%
 turkey 150 <1% 1 <1%
 spain 8 <1% 0 0%
 serbia 2 <1% 0%
Total 30315 100% 67785 100%

The world-leading producer of China , which produces more than 70% of the world output. France ranks second with approximately a quarter of the world production. There is smaller production in Europe , Chile and North Korea . Over 30 countries produce industrial hemp, Australia , Austria , Canada , Chile , China , Denmark , Egypt , Finland , Great Britain , Germany , Greece , [83] Hungary, India , Italy , Japan , Korea , Netherlands , New Zealand , Poland , Portugal , Romania , Russia , Slovenia , Spain , Sweden , Switzerland , Thailand , Turkey and Ukraine . [84] [85]

The United Kingdom and Germany resumed commercial production in the 1990s. British production is mostly used as bedding for horses ; other uses are under development. Companies in Canada, the UK, the United States and Germany, among many others, process of growing into a growing range of food products and cosmetics ; Many traditional growing countries continue to produce textile- grade fiber.

Air dry stem yields in the range of 2.6-14.0 tonnes of dry, retted stalks per hectare (1-5.5 t / ac) at 12% moisture. Yields in Kent County, have averaged 8.75 t / ha (3.5 t / ac). Northern Ontario crops averaged 6.1 t / ha (2.5 t / ac) in 1998. Statistic for the European Union for 2008 to 2010 say that the yield varies from 6.3 to 7.3 ton per ha. [86] [87] Only a part of that is bast fiber. Approximately one ton of bast fiber and 2-3 tons of core material can be decorticated from 3-4 tons of good quality, dry retted straw. For example: 70-110 kg / ha, phosphate (P 2 O 5 ): up to 80 kg / hapotash (K 2 O): 40-90 kg / ha. [88] The average yield of dry hemp stalks in Europe was 6 ton / ha (2.4 ton / ac) in 2001 and 2002. [14]

FAO argues that an optimum yield of hemp fiber is more than 2 tons per hectare, while average yields are around 650 kg / ha. [89]


In the Australian states of Tasmania , Victoria , Queensland and, most recently, New South Wales , the state governments have issued licenses to grow hemp for industrial use. The first to initiate modern research into the potential of cannabis was the state of the art. The state of Victoria was adopted early in 1998, and has reissued the regulation in 2008. [90]

Queensland has allowed industrial production under license since 2002, [91] where the issue was controlled under the Misuse Act 1986. [92]Most recently, New South Wales issues under license [93] under the law, the Hemp Industry Regulations Act 2008 (No 58), which came into effect as of 6 November 2008. [94]


Commercial production (including cultivation) of industrial hemp has been permitted in Canada since 1998 under license and authorization by Health Canada (9,725 ha in 2004, 5450 ha in 2009). [95]

In the early 1990s, industrial agriculture in North America began with the Hemp Awareness Committee at the University of Manitoba . The Committee worked with the provincial government to obtain research and development assistance, and was able to obtain a test result from the Canadian government . Their efforts in the field of industrial hemp (hemp with only minute amounts of tetrahydrocannabinol ) in Canadaand the first harvest in 1998. [96] [97]

The Prairie Provinces of Canada is stable at about 90,000 acres (36,000 ha) over 2013-15. [98]


France is the world’s largest producer with 8,000 hectares cultivated. citation needed ] 70-80% of the fiber produced in Europe in 2003 was used for specialty pulp for cigarette papers and technical applications. About 15% are used in the automotive sector and 5-6% were used for insulation. Approximately 95% of the hurds were used as animal bedding, while almost 5% were used in the building sector. [14] In 2010/2011, a total of 11 000 ha was cultivated with hemp in the EU , a decline compared with previous year. [87] [99]

Russia and Ukraine

From the 1950s to the 1980s, the Soviet Union was the world’s largest producer of hemp (3,000 km² in 1970). The main production areas were in Ukraine , [100] the Kursk and Orel regions of Russia , and near the Polish border. Since its inception in 1931, the Hemp Breeding Department at the Institute of Bast Crops in Hlukhiv (Glukhov), Ukraine, has been one of the world’s largest centers for developing new hemp varieties, focusing on improving fiber quality, per-hectare yields, and low THC content. [101] [102]

After the collapse of the Soviet Union , the commercial cultivation of hemp declined sharply. However, it is estimated to be at least 2.5 million acres of land in the Far East and Black Sea regions. [103]

United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom , cultivation licenses are issued by the Home Office under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 . When grown for non-drug Purposes, hemp is Referred to as industrial hemp, and has common product is fiber for use in a wide variety of products, as well as the seed for nutritional aspects and for the oil. Feral hemp or weed is usually a naturalized fiber or oilseed strain of Cannabis that has escaped from cultivation and is self-seeding. [104]

United States

Hemp Was Made illegal to grow without a permit in the US under the Controlled Substances Act Passed in 1970 Because Of icts relation to marijuana, [17] and Any imported hemp products must meet a zero tolerance level. [105] Some states have made the cultivation of industrial hemp legal, but farmers in many states have grown out of resistance from the federal Drug Enforcement Administration , [106] making “large-scale hemp growing” in the United States “not viable” as late as 2013. [107]In 2013, after the legalization of cannabis in the state, several farmers in Colorado planted and harvested several acres of hemp, bringing in the first crop in the United States in over half a century. [108] Colorado, [109] Vermont, California, and North Dakota have passed laws enabling hemp licensure. All four states are waiting for permission to grow from the DEA. Currently, [110] Oregon has licensed industrial hemp as of August 2009 .[111] Congress included a provision in the Agricultural Act of 2014 that allowed colleges and state agencies to grow and conduct research on hemp in states where it is legal.[17] Hemp production in Kentucky, formerly the United States’ leading producer, resumed in 2014.[112]

As of 2015 the prices are around US $ 580 million annually; hemp seeds have been the major force driving this growth. [113]

Yet, with this progress, they are facing challenges in traditional marketing and sales approaches. According to a case study done by Forbes , hemp businesses and startups have had difficulty marketing and selling non-psychoactive products, as well as social media and financial institutions refuse to distinguish between hemp and marijuana. [114]


Hemp is possibly one of the earliest plants to be grown. [116] [117] An archeological site in the Oki Islands near Japan contained cannabis purchases from about 8000 BC, probably meaning the use of the plant. [118] Hemp uses archaeologically dates back to the Neolithic Age in China, with hemp fiber imprints found on Yangshao pottery dating from the 5th millennium BC . [115] [119] The Chinese later used to make clothes, shoes, ropes, and an early form of paper . [115] The classical Greek historian Herodotus(ca. 480 BC) reported that the inhabitants of Scythia would often inhale the vapors of hemp-seed smoke, both as a ritual and for their own pleasurable recreation. [120]

Textile expert Elizabeth Wayland Barber summarizes the historical evidence that Cannabis sativa , “grew and was known in the Neolithic period all over the northern latitudes, from Europe (Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Romania, Ukraine) to East Asia (Tibet and China), “purpose,” “Cannabis sativa does not surface for certain in the West until relatively late, namely the Iron Age.” [121]“I strongly suspect, however, that what catapulted to a sudden fame and fortuitous fortune has been made to spread rapidly westwards in the first millennium BC, where was the spread of the clothing of pot-smoking somewhere in south-central Asia, where The linguistic evidence strongly supports this theory, both as to time and direction of spread and as to cause. ” [122]

Jews living in Palestine in the 2nd century were familiar with the cultivation of hemp, as witnessed by a reference to it in the Mishna ( Kil’ayim 2: 5) as a variety of plant, along with Arum , which sometimes takes as many three years to grow from a seedling. In late medieval Germany and Italy , hemp was employed in cooked dishes, as filling in pies and tortes , or boiled in a soup . [123] Hemp in later Europe was mainly cultivated for its fibers, and was used for ropes on many ships, including those of Christopher Columbus. The use of a fabric is largely in the countryside, with higher quality textiles being available in the towns.

The Spaniards brought to the Western Hemisphere and cultivated it in Chile starting about 1545. [124] Similar attempts were made in Peru, Colombia, and Mexico, but only in Chile did the crop find success. [125] However, in May 1607, “hempe” was among the crops. Gabriel Archer observed being cultivated by the natives at the hand Powhatan village, where Richmond, Virginia is now situated; [126] and in 1613, Samuell Argall reported “better than that in England” growing along the shores of the upper Potomac . As early as 1619, the first Virginia House of BurgessesPassage of all the plants in Virginia to sow “both English and Indian” hemp on their plantations. [127] The Puritans are first known to have been cultivated in New England in 1645. [124]

United States “Marihuana” production permit. In the United States, hemp cultivation is legally prohibited , but during World War II farmers have been encouraged to grow, to replace manila hemp obtained from Japanese-controlled areas. The US government produced a movie explaining the uses of hemp, called Hemp for Victory .

George Washington pushed for the growth of hemp and even grew himself, as it was a cash crop commonly used to make rope and fabric. In May 1765 he noted in his diary about the sowing of seeds each day until mid-April. Then he recounts the harvest in which he grew 27 bushels that year.

There is some speculation that George Washington smoked the flower of the cannabis plant in his mouth (“Like all farmers, Washington, DC, probably sampled the quality and potency of what he grew up, and he may have used this hemp to treat his chronic tooth aches “), [72] but there is no evidence in any of his writings that he grew up for anything other than industrial purposes. It is sometimes supposed that an excerpt from Washington’s diary, which reads “Began to seperate [ sic ] the Male from the female hemp at Do. & – rather too late” is evidence that he was trying to grow female plants for THCfound in the flowers. However, the editorial remark accompanying the diary states that “This may arise from their [the male] being coarser, and the stalks larger” [128] In subsequent days, he describes the hemp [129] (to make the fibers usable) and harvesting the seeds, [130] suggesting that he was growing up for industrial purposes, not recreational.

George Washington also imported the Indian Hemp plant from Asia, which was used for fiber, by some growers, for intoxicating resin production. In a letter to William Pearce Who Managed the Plants for Him Washington said, “What was done with the Indian Hemp plant? it is more likely that it has been raised, but to have quote needed ]

Additional Known to presidents-have farmed hemp include Thomas Jefferson , [131] James Madison , James Monroe , Andrew Jackson , Zachary Taylor , and Franklin Pierce . [132]

Historically, hemp production had made up a significant portion of antebellum Kentucky’s economy. Before the American Civil War , many slaves worked on plantations producing hemp. [133]

In 1937, the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937 was passed in the United States, levying a tax on anyone who traded commercially in cannabis, hemp, or marijuana. The passing of the Act to destroy the US hemp industry has-been disputed to Involve businessmen Andrew Mellon , Randolph Hearst and the Du Pont family . [134] [135] [136]

One claim Hearst Is That Believed dubious – the Chat ] That His extensive timber holdings threatened This Were by the invention of the decorticator qui Feared Would he allow hemp to Become a cheap substitute for the paper pulp used for newspaper. [134] [137] Historical research reports this fear was unfounded because of the decorticators in the 1930s – machines that separated the fibers from the hemp stem – could not make up a cheaper substitute for fibers from other sources. Further, decorticators did not perform satisfactorily in commercial production. [45] [134]

Another claim is that Mellon, Secretary of the Treasury and the wealthiest man in America at that time, had invested heavily in DuPont ‘s new synthetic fiber, nylon , and believed dubious – discuss ] that the replacement of the traditional resource, hemp, was integral to the new product’s success. [134] [138] [139] [140] [141] [142] [143] [144] The company DuPont and many industrial historians argue a link between nylon and hemp, nylon becomes immediately a scarce commodity. clarification needed ]Nylon had characteristics that could be used for toothbrushes (sold from 1938) and very thin nylon fiber could compete with silk and rayon in various textiles. [45] [145] [146] [147] [148]

Hemp was used extensively by the United States during World War II to make uniforms, canvas, and rope. [149] Much of the hemp used to be grown in Kentucky and the Midwest . During World War II, the US produced a short film 1942, Hemp for Victory , promoting a new world.

Historical cultivation

Hemp has been grown for millennia in Asia and the Middle East for its fiber. Commercial production of the West in the eighteenth century, but was grown in the sixteenth century in eastern England. [150] Because of colonial and naval expansion of the economies of the world . In the early 1940s, world production of hemp fiber ranged from 250,000 to 350,000 metric tons, Russia was the biggest producer. [45]

In Western Europe, the cultivation of the crop was stopped by the 1930s, but the commercial cultivation stopped by then, due to decreased demand compared to popularly developed artificial fibers. [151] Speculation on the potential for commercial cultivation of hemp in large quantities. The world production of hemp fiber fell from over 300,000 metric tones 1961 to about 75,000 metric tones in the early 1990s. [152]


In Japan , hemp was historically used as a paper and fiber crop. There have been many examples of this disease in Japan and have been used in the Japan period (10,000 to 300 BC). Many Kimono designs portray hemp, or asa ( Japanese : 麻 ), as a beautiful plant. In 1948, marijuana was restricted to a narcotic drug. The ban on marijuana has been widely used in the Japanese culture. These laws against marijuana are some of the world’s strictest, allowing for years of possession of the drug, they are hemp growers,Buddhist monks and farcloths for Sumo wrestlers . Because marijuana is used in Japan, these exemptions have recently been called into question. [153]


The cultivation of hemp in Portuguese lands began around the fourteenth century onwards, it was raw material for the preparation of rope and plugs for the Portuguese ships. Colonies for factories for the production of flax hemp, such as Royal Flax Hemp Factory in Brazil.

After the Restoration of Independence in 1640, in order to recover the naval fleet, were encouraged its cultivation as the Royal Decree of D. John IV in 1656. At that time its cultivation was carried out in Trás-os-Montes, Zone Tower Moncorvo, more precisely in Vilariça Valley, fertile land for any crop irrigation, and a very large area, flat and very fertile culture area in the valley of Serra de Bornes.

In 1971, the cultivation of hemp became illegal, and the production was reduced. Because of EU regulations 1308/70, 619/71 and 1164/89, this law has been revoked (for some certified seed varieties). [154]