Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre  is a species of tree in the pea family, Fabaceae , native in tropical and temperate Asia Including parts of Indian subcontinent , China , Japan , Malesia ,Australia and Pacific islands .    It is Often Known by the synonym Pongamia pinnata As It Was Moved to the genus Millettia only recently. Common names include Indian beech ,Magul karanda (මැගුල් කරන්ද in Sinhala) Pongam oiltree , karanj ( Hindi ), honge / karajata (ಹೊಂಗೆ / ಕರಜಾತ in Kannada ), pungai (புங்கை in Tamil ), kānuga (కానుగ in Telugu ), karach (করচ গাছ in Bengali ), naktamāla (नक्तमाल in Sanskrit ), Sukh Chain (سکھ چین in Urdu ).
Pongamia pinnata (L.) Stone is a vegetable tree that grows to about 15-25 meters (50-80 ft) in height with a wide canopy which spreads equally wide. It can be deciduous for short periods. It has a straight gold crooked trunk, 50-80 centimeters (20-30 in) in diameter, with gray-brown bark which is smooth or vertically fissured. Branches are glabrous with pale stipulate scars. The imparipinnate leaves of the tree alternate and are short-stalked, rounded or cuneateat the base, ovate or oblong along the length, obtuse-acuminate at the apex, and not toothed on the edges. They are a soft, shiny burgundy when young and mature to a glossy, deep green as the season progresses with prominent veins underneath. 
Flowering all starts after 3-4 years with small clusters of white, purple, and pink flowers blossoming throughout the year. The raceme -like inflorescence bear two to four flowers which are strongly fragrant and grow to be 15-18 millimeters (0.59-0.71 in) long. The calyx of the flowers is bell-shaped and truncate, while the corolla is a rounded ovate shape with basal auricles and often with a central blotch of green color.  
Croppings of indehiscent pods can occur by 4-6 years. The brown seed pods appear immediately after flowering and mature in 10 to 11 months. The pods are thick-walled, smooth, somewhat flattened and elliptical, slightly curved with a short, curved point. The pods contain within one of two bean-like brownish-red seeds, but because they do not break open naturally the pods need to decompose before the seeds can germinate. The seeds are about 1.5-2.5 centimeters (0.59-0.98 in) long, with a brittle, oily coat and are unpalatable to herbivores.  
Naturally distributed in tropical and temperate Asia, from India to Japan to Malesia to north and north-eastern Australia to some Pacific islands;   It has been propagated and distributed over the world in humid and subtropical environments to 1200m, although in the Himalayan foothills it is not above 600m.  Withstanding temperatures below 0 ° C (32 ° F) and up to about 50 ° C (120 ° F) and annual rainfall of 500-2,500 mm (20-100 in), the tree grows wild on sandy and rocky soils, including oolitic limestone , and will grow in most soil types, even with its roots in salt water. 
The tree is well suited to intense heat and sunlight and its dense network of lateral roots and its thick, long taproot make it drought-tolerant. The dense shade It provides slows the evaporation of Surface Water and Its root nodules Promote nitrogen fixation , a symbiotic process by qui gaseous nitrogen (N 2 ) from the air is converted into ammonium (NH 4 + , a form of nitrogen available to the plant ). M. pinnata is also a fresh water flooded forest species as it can survive total submergence. M. pinnata tree is the pioneer tree in Ratargul fresh water flooded forestin Bangladesh and Tonlesap lake in Cambodia
Millettia pinnata is an outbreeding diploid legume tree, with a diploid chromosome number of 22.  Root nodules are of the determinate type (as those on soybean and common bean) formed by the causative bacterium Bradyrhizobium .
Pongamia pinnata (L.) is well-adapted to arid areas and has many traditional uses. It is often used for landscaping purposes as a windbreak or for shade of the canopy and showy fragrant flowers. The flowers are used by gardeners and compost for plants requiring rich nutrients . The bark can be used to make a dirty beer. The wood is said to be beautifully broken down and easily relegated to firewood , posts, and tool handles. 
While the oil and residue of the plant are toxic and will Induce nausea and vomiting if Ingested, the fruits and sprouts, along with the seeds, are used in Many traditional remedies.  Juices from the plant, are antiseptic [ medical citation needed ] and resistant to pests. In addition M. pinnata has the rare property of producing seeds of 25-40% lipid content of which half is oleic acid .  Oil made from the seeds, Known As pongamia oil , is significant year asset of this tree and has-been used as lamp oil , in soapmaking, and as a lubricant for thousands of years. The oil: has a high glad of triglycerides , and Its disagreeable taste and odor are due to bitter flavonoid constituents Including karanjin , pongamol , tannin and karanjachromene .  It can be grown in rainwater harvesting up to 6 m (20 ft) in water depth with its greenery and remaining useful for biodiesel production. 
The residue of oil extraction, called a cake, is used as a fertilizer and animal feed for ruminants and poultry. 
Long used as tree shade, M. pinnata is heavily self-seeding and can spread lateral roots up to 9 m (30 ft) over its lifetime. If not managed it can Carefully Quickly Become a Leading weed Some, Including Miami-Dade County , to label the tree as an invasive species .  However this dense network of lateral roots makes this tree ideal for controlling soil erosion and binding sand dunes . 
The seed oil has-been found to be Useful in diesel generators and, along with Jatropha and Castor , it is in being white Explored Hundreds of projects Throughout India and the third world as feedstock for biodiesel .  It is particularly attractive because it grows naturally over much of India, having very deep roots to reach water, and is one of the few crops well-suited to India’s large population of rural poor. Several unelectrified villages have recently used pongamia oil , simple processing techniques, and diesel generators to create their own grid systems to run water pumps and electric lighting. 
In 1997 the Indian Institute of Science started researching and Promoting the use of the seed oil as a vegetable oil fuel for stationary generators for electricity and irrigation pumps in the rural areas of Karnataka and Andhra . The program, SuTRA, successfully demonstrated the sustainability of such use in many villages all over India. [ quote needed ]
In 2003, the Himalayan Institute of Biofuel Rural Development Initiative initiated a campaign of education and public awareness to rural farmers. M. pinnata in two Indian states. One of the Himalayan Institute’s partners has Developed Consistently high yield scion That Reduced the time it takes to mature from 10 years to as little as three. To help the farmers in the transition to the pinnata of the Indian government has contributed $ 30 million in low-interest loans and donated 4.5 million kg (5,000 short tones)) of rice to sustain impoverished drought-stricken farmers Since the project began in 2003 over 20 million trees have been planted and 45,000 farmers are now involved. 
In 2006, the Himalayan Institute began to look for locations in Africa to transplant M. pinnata into. Initially they started in Uganda but the lack of infrastructure and growing desertification has been growing slowly. They also began a project in the Kumbo region of Cameroon where conditions are better. There were some suggestions that Mr Pinnata could be grown all over the continent as a way to prevent the encroachment of the Sahara . 
The University of Queensland node of the Australian Research Council Center for Excellence in Legume Research, under the directorship of Professor Peter Gresshoff, in conjunction with Pacific Renewable Energy ares currently working is Mr. pinnata for commercial use for the manufacture of biofuel. Projects ares currently Focused on understanding aspects of M. pinnataIncluding root biology, nodulation, nitrogen fixation, domestication genes, grafting, salinity tolerance, and the genetics of the oil producing pathways. Emphasis is given to analyzing carbon sequestration (in relation to carbon credits) and nitrogen gain.
Research has also been used as a feedstock, supplemented by the production of high-protein feeds, and byproducts contain up to 30% protein. Other studies have shown some potential for biocidal activity against V. cholerae and E. coli , as well as anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive (reduction in sensitivity to painful stimuli) and antipyretic (reduction in fever) properties. There is no doubt that M. pinnata can be used as a natural insecticide . 
- Solar power in India
- Millettia pinnata seed oil
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