Paulownia

Paulownia is a genus of six to 17 species (depending on taxonomic authority) of flowering plants in the family Paulowniaceae , related to and sometimes included in the Scrophulariaceae . They are present in much of China , south to northern Laos and Vietnam and are long cultivated elsewhere in eastern Asia , notably in Japan and Korea . They are deciduous trees 12-15 m (39-49 ft) tall, with large, heart-shaped leaves 15-40 cm across, arranged in opposite pairs on the stem. The flowersare produced in early spring on panicles 10-30 cm long, with a tubular purple corolla resembling a foxglove flower. The fruit is a dry capsule , containing thousands of minute seeds .

The genus, originally Pavlovnia but now usually spelled Paulownia , was named in honor of Anna Paulowna, queen consort of The Netherlands (1795-1865), daughter of Tsar Paul I of Russia . It is also called “princess tree” for the same reason. [1]

Paulownia clarification needed ] is an early colonizer of sterile soils ( because of its high temperature wildfire ), because its seeds are easily killed by soil fungi. In fact, it is so difficult to start Paulownia by seed that successful plantations purchase or rootstock gold seedlings propagate their own. Remarkably, seedlings, seedlings, and roots of mature trees are likely to be used, and are widely used for boat building and surfboards.

Fossil record

Paulownia tomentosa, occurred in North America , but it is now considered an introduced species. [2] [3] In an article in the American Journal of Botany , Charles J. Smiley reported finding fossils of Paulownia tomentosa leaves in Tertiary strata of Ellensburg Canyon of Washington state . Dr. Smiley describes the structure of the leaves, and is similarly positively as Paulownia. He examined fossils of many more trees in the Ellensburg formation and identified them as normally co-inhabited with Paulownia. He describes the climate of what is now the United States during the Tertiary Period of Paulownia and He is Declining in North American Paulownia to Glaciation in the Elderly. [4]

Paulownia macrofossils -have-been: recovered from the late Zanclean course of the Pliocene websites in Pocapaglia , Italy [5] and Paulownia caucasica macrofossils-have-been: recovered from strata of the Serravallian course of the Miocene in Georgia in the Caucasus area. [6]

Uses

In China, it is popular for a planting and an ornamental tree. Paulownia needs much light and does not like high water tables. Paulownia grown on plantations has a large number of growth rings; with higher growth. citation needed ] It is important in China, Korea, and Japan for making the soundboards of stringed musical instruments such as the guqin , guzheng , pipa , koto , and gayageum . [7] [ citation needed ]It is also becoming popular in the building of electric guitars, due to its affordability, availability, tone and looks. Paulownia was recently used in the making of a Brad Paisley Fender Telecaster guitar. [8]

Paulownia is also used in Chinese agroforestry systems because it grows fast, its wood is light but strong, its flowers are rich in nectar , its leaves make good fodder for farm animals , it is deep-rooting, and it is late-leafing and its canopy is quite sparse so That crops below it get Both light enough to grow and shelter . [9]

This paulownia flower pattern is a symbol of the Office of the Prime Minister of Japan ( go-shichi-no-kiri ). It also decorates the Order of the Rising Sun and the Order of the Paulownia Flowers .

Paulownia is known in Japanese as kiri ( 桐 ) , specifically referring to P. tomentosa ; it is also known as the “princess tree”. citation needed ] Paulownia was born when he was a baby girl, and when he was born there, he was born. Citation needed ] Paulownia is the my of the office of prime minister and aussi reserves as the emblem of the firm and the government (vis-à-vis the chrysanthemum being white theImperial Seal of Japan ). citation needed ] It is one of the suits in hanafuda , associated with the month of December. citation needed ] Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia states:

Paulownia is very light, fine-grained, and warp-resistant. It is the fastest growing hardwood. It is used for chests , boxes, and clogs ( geta ). Its low silica content reduces the size of the blade, making it more expensive Japanese edge tools. The wood is burned to make charcoal for sketching and powder for fireworks , the bark is made into a dye . The silvery-gray wood is sliced ​​into veneers for special visiting cards. [10] [11]

More recently, it is used as a bodyweight for low-cost electric guitars and as the core for lightweight touring skis. citation needed ] It is often used in guitars as the core body, then it is a more durable wood, such as the Dean XM that is made of Paulownia as the body is topped with mahogany . quote needed ]

Paulownia is extremely fast growing; up to 20 feet in one year when young. Some species of Paulownia plantation can be harvested for as little as five years. Once the trees are harvested, they are regenerating their existing root systems, earning them the name of the “Phoenix tree”. quote needed ]

Paulownia are a crop in their requirements, performing well in the soil of the soil. quote needed ]

Species

  • Genus Paulownia
    • Paulownia australis
    • Paulownia catalpifolia
    • Coreana Paulownia ( Paulownia tomentosa var. Coreana )
    • Paulownia duclouxii
    • Paulownia elongata
    • Paulownia fargesii
    • Paulownia fortunei – dragon tree. [12]
    • Paulownia glabrata
    • Paulownia grandifolia
    • Paulownia imperialis
    • Paulownia kawakamii
    • Paulownia lilacina
    • Paulownia longifolia
    • Paulownia meridionalis
    • Paulownia Mikado
    • Paulownia recurva
    • Paulownia rehderiana
    • Paulownia shensiensis
    • Paulownia silvestrii
    • Paulownia taiwaniana
    • Paulownia thyrsoidea
    • Paulownia tomentosa
    • Paulownia viscosa

References

  1. Jump up^ Rush Industries, 2000.
  2. Jump up^ “Plants Profile for Paulownia tomentosa (princesstree)” .
  3. Jump up^ “Paulownia tomentosa in Flora of China @ efloras.org” .
  4. Jump up^ Smiley, Charles J. (February 1961). “A Record of Paulownia in the Tertiary of North America”. American Journal of Botany . 48 (2): 175-179. doi : 10.2307 / 2439100 . JSTOR  2439100 .
  5. Jump up^ Messian to Zanclean vegetation and climate of Northern and Central Italy by Adele Bertini & Edoardo Martinetto, Bollettino della Societa Italiana Paleontologica, 47 (2), 2008, 105-121. Modena, 11 lugio 2008.
  6. Jump up^ The History of the Flora and Vegetation of Georgia by Irina Shatilova, Nino Mchedlishvili, Luara Rukhadze, Eliso Kvavadze,Georgian National MuseumInstitute of Paleobiology,Tbilisi2011,ISBN 978-9941-9105-3-1
  7. Jump up^ “Fender Brad Paisley Worn Telecaster Road with Gig Bag” . www.americanmusical.com . Retrieved 2017-08-03 .
  8. Jump up^ “Fender Brad Paisley Worn Telecaster Road with Gig Bag” . www.americanmusical.com . Retrieved 2017-08-03 .
  9. Jump up^ Wu Yungying and Zhaohua Zhu (1997). “5, Temperate Agroforestry in China”. Andrew M. Gordon and Steven M. Newman. Temperate Agroforestry Systems . Wallingford, Oxfordshire: CAB International. pp. 170-172. ISBN  9780851991474 .
  10. Jump up^ Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia(1993). Tokyo: Kodansha, 1993.ISBN 4-06-931098-3. page 1189.
  11. Jump up^ Lincoln, William L. (1986). World Woods in Color . Fresno: Linden Publishing. p. 143.
  12. Jump up^ “Paulownia fortunei Fact Sheet” . Archived from the original on 2013-10-25 . Retrieved 2012-06-25 .