Trichothecium roseum is a fungus in the Ascomycota firstdivisionreported in 1809.  It is characterized by its flat and granular colonies which are initially white and developed into light pink in color.  This fungus reproduces asexually through the formation of conidia with no known sexual state.  Trichothecium roseum is distinctive from other species of the genusTrichothecium in its characteristic zigzag patterned chained conidia.  It is found in various countries worldwide and can grow in a variety of habitats.  Trichothecium roseumA variety of secondary metabolites including mycotoxins, such as rosinotoxins and trichothecenes, which can be described as a variety of fruit crops.  It can be used as a pathogenic and opportunistic pathogen in the field of various diseases and their impact on the farming industry.  Secondary metabolites of T. roseum , specifically Trichothecinol A, are being investigated as potential anti-metastatic drugs. Several agents including harpin, silicon oxide, and sodium silicate are potential inhibitors of T. roseum growth on fruit crops.    Trichothecium roseumis a plant pathogen and has yet to show a significant impact on human health. 
History and classification
The genus Trichothecium is small and heterogeneous with seventy-three recorded species.  This genus Was Reported first in 1809.  The main members of the genus include Trichothecium polybrochum , Trichothecium cystosporium , Trichothecium pravicovi , and Trichothecium roseum .  Trichothecium roseum has morphologically different conidiophores and conidia than the other three main species, which has been developed over the years.  Since Trichotheciumfungi lack a sexual phase, the systematic classification was not uniform following their discovery.  These fungi were initially grouped into Fungi imperfecti under the Deuteromycetes classification form .  In 1958, Tubaki expanded Hughes’ classification of soil hyphomycetes , part of the form of Fungi imperfecti , by adding a ninth section in order to accommodate T. roseum and its unique conidial apparatus.   Trichothecium has been classified under the Sordariomycetes class .  A recent classification has placed Trichotheciumunder the phylum Ascomycota since they produce conidial courses that are similar to the perfect fungi. 
Trichothecium roseum colonies are flat, granular, and powdery in appearance.   The color of the colonies appears to be white and develops a light pink to peach color.  The genus Trichothecium is characterized by its pinkish colored colonies. 
Conidiophores of T. roseum are usually erect and are 200-300μm in length.  They arise singly or in loose groups.  Conidiophores are simple hyphae ,  which are septate in their lower half,  and bear clusters of conidia at the tip.  These conidiophores are indistinguishable from vegetative hyphae until production of the first conidium.  Conidium development is distinctive  and was first described by Ingold in 1956. Conidia arise as a blowout from the side of the conidiophore apex which is thus incorporated into the base of each spore.  After the first conidium is blown out, before it matures, the apex of the conidiophore directly below blows out a second conidium from the opposite side.  Conidia are pinched out of the conidiophore, one after the other in the direction of the characteristic zigzag patterned chain.  Conidia of T.roseum (15-20 × 7.5-10 μm)  are smooth and clavate.  Each conidium is two celled with apical cell being larger than the curved basal cell.  Conidia are light pink and appear translucent under the microscope. They appear a more saturated pink color when grown in masses in culture or on the surface. 
Growth and physiology
Trichothecium roseum reproduces asexually by the formation of conidia with no known sexual stage.  Trichothecium roseum is relatively fast-growing as it can form colonies reaching 9 cm (4 in) in diameter at 20 ° C (68 ° F) on malt extract agar.  This fungus grows optimally at 25 ° C (77 ° F) with a minimum and maximum growing temperature of 15 ° C (59 ° F) and 35 ° C (95 ° F) respectively.  Trichothecium roseum can tolerate a wide pH range but grows optimally at pH 6.0. Sporulation occurs rapidly at pH 4.0-6.5 and a combination of low temperature (15 ° C (59 ° F)) and high glucose concentration can increase the size of conidia.  Treatment ofT. roseum with colchicine increases the number of nuclei in conidia, growth rate, and biosynthetic activities.  There are a variety of sugars that T. roseum can use including D-fructose, sucrose, maltose, lactose, raffinose, D-galactose, D-glucose, arabinose, and D-mannitol.  Good growth also occurs in the presence of various amino acids including L-methionine, L-isoleucine, L-tryptophan, L-alanine, L-norvaline, and L-norleucine. 
Trichothecium roseum can produce numerous secondary metabolites that include toxins, antibiotics, and other biologically active compounds.  Diterpenoids produced include rosolactone, rosolactone acetate, rosenonolactone, desoxyrosenonolactone, hydroxyrosenonolactones, and acetoxy-rosenonolactone. Several sesquiterpenoids are also produced by T. roseum including crotocin, trichothecolone, trichothecin, trichodiol A, trichothecinol A / B / C, trichodiene, and rosinotoxin.   
Trichothecium roseum was found to antagonize pathogenic fungi, such as Pyricularia oryzae ( Magnaporthe oryzae ) and Phytophthora infestans , in vitro .  It was suggested that the antifungal compound trichothecin was the main contributor to this action.  In other studies trichothecinol B isolated from T. roseum displayed modest antifungal activity against Cryptococcus albidus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae . 
Various studies-have Indicated That Trichothecinol A isolated from T. roseum Strongly inhibited TPA-induced tumor promoting on mouse skin carcinogenesis test in May and therefore be valuable for further Top investigation as cancer preventive agent.    Anti-cancer studies have also shown that Trichothecinol has significantly inhibited cancer cell migration and therefore can be developed as a potential new anti-metastatic drug. 
Habitat and ecology
Trichothecium roseum is a saprophyte  and is found worldwide.  Poland, Denmark, France, Russia, Turkey, Israel, Egypt, the Sahara, Chad, Zaire, central Africa, Australia, Polynesia, India, China, and Panama.  Known habitats of T. roseum include uncultivated soils, forest nurseries, forest under trees, teak, cultivated soils with vegetables, citrus plantations, heathland, dunes, salt-marshes, and garden compost.  Commonly, this fungus can be isolated from the tree leaf of various trees including birch, pine, fir, cotton, and palm. Barley, wheat, oats, maize, apples, grapes, meat products, cheese, beans, hazelnuts, pecans, pistachios, peanuts, and coffee.  Levels of T. roseum in foods other than fruits are generally low. 
There are approximately two hundred and twenty different seedling hosts of T. roseum found worldwide.  Trichothecium roseum causes pink rot on various fruits and vegetables.  It is considered both a pathogenetic and a pathogenetic pathogenesis of the fruit / vegetable host by the pathogenesis of primary pathogenesis.  Disease caused by this fungus is characterized by the development of white powdery mold that eventually turns pink. Antagonistic behaviors of T. roseum with certain pathogenic plant fungi was reported by Koch in 1934.  He started that T. roseumparasitized stroma of Dibotryon morbosum which causes black knot disease in cherry, plum, and apricot trees. 
Trichothecium roseum is known to produce pink rot on apples particularly following an apple scab infection caused by Venturia inaequalis .  Studies have shown that rosinotoxin B, a secondary metabolite of T. roseum , can penetrate apple peels and cause lesions.  Trichothecium roseum also causes a serious problem in China.  Core rot not only causes economic loss but it is also associated with high levels of mycotoxin production.  There have been reports of the presence of trichothecenes , specifically T-2 toxin , in infected apples in China. T-2 toxin has the highest toxicity of the trichothecenes and poses a threat to those who consume these infections due to its carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, and immunotoxicity. 
Trichothecium roseum has been identified, along with Acremonium acutatum , as the two strains of pathogenic fungi, which causes white stains on harvested grapes in Korea.  The presence of mycelia on the surface of the grapes resulted in a white stained, powdery mildew appearance.  Trichothecium roseum was identified using fungal morphology and nucleotide sequencing by PCR .  It appears as though the fungus covers the surface of the grape only and does not penetrate the tissue.  This stain lowers the quality of grapes and causes serious economic losses. 
Trichothecin, trichothecolone, and rosenonolactone, which are secondary metabolites of T. roseum , were detected in wines.  Presence of small quantities of trichothecin can inhibit alcohol fermentation.  Trichothecium roseum has been reported to increase in wineries in Portugal.  In this case, T. roseum appeared to grow over the years that were infected with gray rot.  Mycotoxins have only been detected in these tissues and have been shown to be of poor quality.  Grape contamination by T. roseum appears to be prominent intemperate climates . 
Other fruit disease
Cases of T. roseum pink have been reported on numerous other fruits, but have been studied.  Pink T. roseum has been reported in Korea and Pakistan.   It also causes blues in muskmelons and watermelons in Japan, the United States, South America, India, and the United Kingdom.  Trichothecium roseum is reported to grow on bananas and peaches. 
Prevention of plant disease
Preventive measures can be taken to prevent growth of T. roseum in fruit crops.  These include adequate ventilation in the storage facility, avoiding injuring and bruising the fruit, and ensuring adequate storage temperatures.  Pre- and postharvest applications have been suggested to measure T. roseum production on fruit crops.  In particular, studies have been done to test various compounds to prevent T. roseum growth on several melon types.    Harpin was inoculated on harvested Hami melons and caused significantly reduced lesion diameter and reducedT. roseum growth.  Silicon oxide and sodium silicate, and reduced diameter. Hami melons.  Pre-harvest inoculation of rabbit on muskmelons decreased by T. roseum on harvested melons. 
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